The Hama Massacre - Reasons, Supporters of the Rebellion, Consequences
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Near East, Near Orient, grade: 1, Ben Gurion University (Middle East Sciences), course: Israel and Arabs - between war and peace, 76 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In February 1982, the Syrian city of Hama became well-known worldwide as the place of the "Hama massacre." After a large and long-planned uprising of Muslim rebels against Asad and the Ba'th party, mainly organised by the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, Syrian government forces crushed the rebellion with brutal force. An estimated number of 20.000 to 40.000 citizens were killed by Syrian army units under the control of General Ali Haydar, 15.000 missing persons have not been found until today. This incident evoked heavy condemnation of the so-called 'pro-Moscow military regime' of Asad in the German press. It was accused of "beeing one of the bloodiest regimes in the Middle East, shaken from fear of espionage and with pro-soviet declarations and refusal of any peace policy overbidding itself every day anew." (Ranke, P.M., "Nur noch mit Gewalt," Die Welt, 12.2.1982). The Asad regime was portrayed in West German newspapers in exactly the same way as in the writings of the Muslim Brotherhood, as a sectarian minority regime, and little distinction was made between the goals of the Brotherhood and the goals of the Syrian people in general. This paper analyses the reasons, supporters and consequences of the Hama massacre, focussing on the triangle between Asad, the Muslim Brotherhood and West Germany. I will analyse, why the Muslim Brotherhood in exile acted mainly from West Germany in its fight against Asad, and why West Germany supported or tolerated those actions. I will furthermore analyse the interests of different groups and countries, internal, regional and international, involved in the Hama incident - and elaborate why they were interested in a destabilisation of Syria. On a global level,
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Abd-Allah accused Afghanistan al-Sadr Alawis ally Arab Asad AsadŽs asylum Brotherhood in exile Brotherhood in Syria Camp David cold war Congress Country Studies cooperation Damascus declared fight Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurter Neue Presse Frankfurter Rundschau Friedman furthermore German ground German media coverage goals groups Hafiz al-Asad Hama incident Hama massacre Hama rebellion Hama revolt Hassan al Banna inside Syria internal Iran Iran’s Iraq Islamic Center Islamic Struggle Islamische Islamist Israel Israeli Jihad Jordan Khomeini killed Kirkpatrick doctrine Lebanon MaŽoz mainly Middle East military regime Moscow Muslim Brotherhood Muslim Brothers Nusairis opposition Palestinian peace process political population portray pro-Soviet propaganda reasons regime of Asad relations reported Schock von Hama sectarian strifes ShiŽa socialistic Soviet Union Sunni majority supporting the Brotherhood Syrer Syrian Brotherhood Syrian government Syrian Muslim Brotherhood Syrische terrorism Trierscher Volksfreund troops uprising Volksaufstand Welt West German media West German newspapers West Germany
Page 4 - Algeria and Tunisia have all faced Islamist threats and crushed them without mercy or Miranda rights. Part of the problem America now faces is actually the fallout from these crackdowns. Three things happened: First, once the fundamentalists were crushed by the Arab states they fled to the last wild, uncontrolled places in the region — Lebanon 's Bekaa Valley and Afghanistan — or to the freedom of America and Europe.
Page 4 - At this signal hundreds of Islamic fighters rose from their hiding places. Killing and looting, they burst into the homes of officials and party leaders, overran police posts and ransacked armouries in a bid to seize power in the...
Page 20 - ...gangs carrying out the Camp David conspiracy against Syria in collusion with Egypt, Israel and the United States.
Page 19 - Sha's agreements with it, broke off diplomatic relations with Israel, stopped the flow of oil to it, withdrew from the Central Treaty...
Page 13 - Twelver Shi'ite heresiographers were only slightly less vituperative and regarded the Alawis as ghulat, "those who exceed" all bounds in their deification of Ali.
Page 19 - Since the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war in 1980 Syria has aligned itself with Iran...