Global Imbalances and the Lessons of Bretton Woods
In Global Imbalances and the Lessons of Bretton Woods, Barry Eichengreen takes issue with the argument that today's international financial system is largely analogous to the Bretton Woods System of the period 1958 to 1973. Then, as now, it has been argued, the United States ran balance of payment deficits, provided international reserves to other countries, and acted as export market of last resort for the rest of the world. Then, as now, the story continues, other countries were reluctant to revalue their currencies for fear of seeing their export-led growth slow and suffering capital losses on their foreign reserves. Eichengreen argues in response that the power of historical analogy lies not just in finding parallels but in highlighting differences, and he finds important differences in the structure of the world economy today. Such differences, he concludes, mean that the current constellation of exchange rates and payments imbalances is unlikely to last as long as the original Bretton Woods System.Two of the most salient differences are the twin deficits and low savings rate of the United States, which do not augur well for the sustainability of the country's international position. Such differences, he concludes, mean that the current constellation of exchange rates and payments imbalances is unlikely to last as long as the original Bretton Woods System. After identifying these differences, Eichengreen looks in detail at the Gold Pool, the mechanism through which European central banks sought to support the dollar in the 1960s. He shows that the Pool was fragile and short lived, which does not bode well for collective efforts on the part of Asian central banks to restrain reserve diversification and support the dollar today. He studies Japan's exit from its dollar peg in 1971, drawing lessons for China's transition to greater exchange rate flexibility. And he considers the history of reserve currency competition, asking if it has lessons for whether the dollar is destined to lose its standing as preeminent international currency to the euro or even the Chinese renminbi.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
Other editions - View all
adjustment Asian assets balance of payments Bank of England Bank of Japan Bretton Woods system capital controls cartel chapter China coefﬁcient convert country’s demand denominated dollar price dollar reserves domestic effective exchange rate Eichengreen euro European exchange-rate export prices export-led growth Federal Reserve ﬁgure ﬁnance ﬁnancial markets ﬁnancial system ﬁxed ﬂexibility ﬂoating ﬂows ﬂuctuate foreign central banks foreign exchange France French franc global imbalances gold market Gold Pool gold reserves incentive industrial inﬂation inﬂows interest rates International Financial Statistics international monetary investment investors Japan Ministry Japanese Kosai liquid London million Ministry of Finance monetary gold monetary policy ofﬁcial pass-through percent period price index price of gold real effective exchange real exchange rate reﬂecting renminbi reserve currency reserve-currency revaluation sector share signiﬁcant Special Drawing Rights stability Statistics sterling tion trade transactions U.S. dollar U.S. Treasury undervalued unit root wholesale prices world economy world income