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Space Charge Effects
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acceptor acid/base activation energy additives adsorbed adsorbed species adsorption analysis anion associated atomic orbitals band edge band gap behavior bonding orbitals bulk calculations Catal catalyst cation centers Chem chemical chemisorption clean surface conduction band covalent bonding crystal dangling bond density described desorb desorption discussed in Section donor double layer effects electrical electron affinity electron exchange electron transfer energy levels Equation equilibrium example Fermi energy Figure fluctuating germanium hydrogen interaction interface ionic solids ionic surface ionosorbed ionosorption ions lattice oxygen Lewis acid measurements metal monolayer observed occupied occur one-equivalent oxidation oxygen p-type parameters partial charge peak photocatalysis photodesorption Phys physisorption platinum polar potential protons reaction reactive recombination redox couple rigid band model semiconductor shown solution space charge spectroscopy studies substrate suggest surface atom surface barrier surface molecule Surface Sci surface state energy technique temperature theory TiO2 tion unoccupied valence band voltage