Ethics in Biomedical Research: International Perspectives

Front Cover
Matti Häyry, Tuija Takala, Peter Herissone-Kelly
Rodopi, 2007 - Medical - 248 pages
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This book deals with the international assessment and regulation of biomedical research. In its chapters, some of the leading figures in today's bioethics address questions centred on global development, scientific advances, and vulnerability. The series Values In Bioethics makes available original philosophical books in all areas of bioethics, including medical and nursing ethics, health care ethics, research ethics, environmental ethics, and global bioethics.
 

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Contents

2 Biomedical Research on Fetuses Embryos PreEmbryos
98
3 Therapeutic Cloning in the United States
100
4 Reproductive Cloning in the United States
104
5 The Value of Life and Ectogenesis in the United States
107
6 Conclusion
109
Human Stem Cell Research as a Promising Hope for Humankind A ChristianEthical Contribution
113
3 Societal Reactions
114
4 The Debate on the Moral Status of the Human Embryo
117

4 HIVAIDS and the Recrudescence of Infectious Diseases
13
5 Persisting Controversies in International Clinical Research
14
6 Standard of Care
15
7 Making Progress through New Perspectives
17
8 Conclusion
18
Some Current Issues in the Ethics of Biomedical Research and Their Background in the Protection of the Dignity and Autonomy of the Vulnerable
21
Its Scope and Approaches
22
3 Dignity and Autonomy of the Vulnerable
23
4 The First Phase of Bioethics
24
5 The Second Phase of Bioethics
25
6 Dignity Autonomy and Stem Cell Research
26
7 Political Rhetoric and Genetically Altered Food Products
28
8 Justice Solidarity and International Pharmaceutical Research
29
10 Construction by Destruction
30
Bioethics and Biomedicine Developing Countries Perspective
33
3 Biomedicine Today
35
4 Biomedicine Research in Developing Countries
39
5 Conclusion
43
Brazillian Research Ethics A NorthSouth Dialogue Aiming to Build a New Culture of Respect
47
3 Learning from Developed Countries and International Declarations and Documents
50
4 The Brazilian Contribution to the Discussion
51
5 Conclusion
53
Who Sets the Agenda for Health Research in Developing Countries? A Call for More Community Involvement
57
3 Research Responsive to Community Health Needs
58
4 Research on Needs within Community Priorities
59
5 Research on Needs Outside Community Priorities
62
6 Revisiting the Three Categories of Research
63
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY AS ANSWERS AND AS QUESTIONS
67
Ethical Aspects in Introducing Genetically Modified Organisms for Public Health Purposes
69
3 Bioethics and Molecular Entomology
71
4 Intrinsic Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering
73
5 Animal Rights Concerns
74
7 Duty to the Community when Experimental Manipulations Are done on the Environment instead of on Individuals
76
8 Environmental Risks and Public Consensus
77
9 Ethics of Technology Choices
79
10 Conclusion
81
The Ethical Review of Research into Rare Genetic Disorders
87
2 The Problem
88
3 Research and Clinical Practice
89
4 Review of Research into Rare Conditions
91
5 Conclusion
94
Ongoing and Emerging Biomedical Research Issues at the Beginning of Life United States Perspectives
97
5 Human beings as Created CoCreators
118
6 Conclusion
121
Interrelations between Bioethics and Ethics of Biotechnology
125
2 Internal and External Considerations
127
3 Preservation and Safety
129
4 Changes and Hope
130
VULNERABILITY POWER AND RESPONSIBILITY
133
Infectious Disease and the Ethics of Research The Moral Significance of Communicability
135
2 Current Informed Consent Policies and Contagiousness
136
3 Historical Examples of Ignoring Contagion
138
4 Historical Examples of Considering Contagion
140
5 Contemporary Examples of Ignoring Contagion
142
6 Considering the Risks to Indirect Participants
144
How Far to Go?
146
Is There a Duty to Serve as Research Subjects?
151
2 Why Ask the Question?
152
3 Medical Duty and Political Obligation
154
4 Medical Benefits Model
155
5 The Fairness Model
156
6 Harm Prevention Model
157
7 Responsibility and Reciprocity to Future Generations
158
8 Derivation of Duty to Serve as Research Subjects
159
9 The Urgency of Research
162
10 Duty and Responsibility
164
Vulnerability in Biomedical Research A Framework for Analysis
167
2 Vulnerability and AIDS
168
3 Vulnerability and Biomedical Research Ethics
170
4 A Vulnerability Analysis Framework
173
5 Conclusion
178
New Vulnerabilities Raised by Biomedical Research
181
3 Vulnerability in Human Experimentation
185
Ethic of Rights and Vindication of an Ethics of Duty
191
How to Save the World Some Alternatives to Biomedical Research
193
2 Education for Disease Prevention
195
3 The Kitchen Garden Model
197
4 Individual Health Autonomy
200
5 Methodological Difficulties
204
Anecdote the Mother of Science
207
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
213
INDEX
221
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