Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues
There is considerable debate over the extent to which cognitive tasks can be learned non-consciously or implicitly. In recent years a large number of studies have demonstrated a discrepancy between explicit knowledge and measured performance. This book presents an overview of these studies and attempts to clarify apparently disparate results by placing them in a coherent theoretical framework. It draws on evidence from neuropsychological and computational modelling studies as well as the many laboratory experiments.
Chapter one sets out the background to the large number of recent studies on implicit learning. It discusses research on implicit memory, perception without awareness, and automaticity. It attempts to set the implicit - explicit distinction in the context of other relevant dichotomies in the literature. Chapter two presents an overview of research on the control of complex systems, from Broadbent (1977) through to the present day. It looks at the accessibility of control task knowledge, as well as whether there is any other evidence for a distinction between implicit and explicit modes of learning. Chapter three critically reviews studies claiming to show that people can acquire concepts without being verbally aware of the basis on which they are responding. It shows that concept formation can be implicit in some sense but not in others. Chapter four investigates the claim that people can learn sequential information in an implicit way. Chapter five looks at whether computational modelling can elucidate the nature of implicit learning. It examines the feasibility of different exemplar connectionist models in accounting for performance in concept learning, sequence learning, and control task experiments. Chapter six reviews evidence concerning dissociations between implicit and explicit knowledge in various neuropsychological syndromes. Finally, chapters seven and eight discuss the many practical and theoretical implications of the research.
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Preview of Chapters 2 to 8
Conditions and Modes of Learning
Implicit Concept Formation
Is Implicit Knowledge Learned in a Distinct Way?
Does Implicitly Acquired Knowledge of Sequential
Computational Models of Implicit Learning
The Dynamic Control Tasks
Theoretical Frameworks for Understanding
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abstract activation amnesic patients argued artificial grammar learning asked auto associator awareness behaviour Berry & Broadbent Berry and Broadbent bigrams blindsight Chapter classification performance Cleeremans coding cognitive Cognitive Psychology Competitive Chunking complete concept formation connectionist conscious control tasks correlations delta rule Dienes and Fahey dissociation distinction Dulany effect elicited evidence example experiment expert systems explicitly finite-state grammar forced-choice tests free recall free report grammatical strings hidden units implicit and explicit implicit knowledge implicit learning implicit memory inaccessibility interaction learning task letters Lewicki look-up table Mathews measure Merikle metaknowledge nongrammatical strings nonsalient output paradigm pattern perception Perruchet phase position predict procedural knowledge processing produce prosopagnosia questions Reber recognition relevant representation responses Schacter semantic sequence learning sequential structure showed significantly situations sixth stimulus specific stimuli studies subjective threshold sugar production suggested tacit knowledge target transfer trials underlying verbal verbalisable knowledge visual words
Page 171 - Broadbent, DE, & Aston, B. (1978). Human control of a simulated economic system. Ergonomics, 21, 1035-1043. Broadbent, DE, FitzGerald, P., & Broadbent, MHP (1986). Implicit and explicit knowledge in the control of complex systems. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 33-50.
Handbook of Personality, Second Edition: Theory and Research
Lawrence A. Pervin,Oliver P. John
No preview available - 1999
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