The Mechanical and Other Properties of Iron and Steel in Connection with Their Chemical Composition

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Spon, 1891 - Iron - 203 pages
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Page 1 - It has been gathered from the widely scattered information upon the now generally acknowledged intimate connection that exists between the properties of steel and iron and their chemical composition. It was considered best to treat the matter under heads, each dealing with one element at the time ; however, as the different elements at times greatly influence one another, they often had to be considered simultaneously. In general, the following rule has been followed, — first, to say a few words...
Page 43 - ... as ordinates, the union of the corresponding points is nearly a straight line, the maximum being at about 3 per cent. manganese. On annealed steel manganese may be considered to be about equal to one-third carbon, thus each 0 • 1 per cent. manganese more or less will cause a rise or fall in the ultimate strength of 1 • 8-2 kg.
Page 4 - ... deflection; and changes graphitic carbon to the combined. Within certain limits, it softens iron by neutralizing the effect of sulphur; decreases shrinkage and chill (from same cause) ; increases the strength; and improves the metal by eliminating blow holes due to occluded gas. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON. The affinity of iron for carbon is so great that all technically produced iron contains carbon, ranging from a few hundredths of one per cent to five or six per cent. In the fluid state iron may...
Page 75 - Poor silicon has been scolded for a long time, but later investigations have shown this to be quite wrong and that silicon is not so bad after all. Silicon increases tensile strength, however, in a much less degree than carbon, being only about onetenth of this...
Page 43 - More rapidly than the ultimate strength is the elastic limit raised by increasing the manganese, thus manganese when in larger quantities (more than 1 per cent.) causes brittleness. The elastic limit lies at 50 to 55 per cent. of the ultimate strength when not exceeding 0 • 6 per cent.
Page 1 - ... sulphur, copper, chromium, titanium, tungsten, aluminium, nickel, cobalt, arsenic, antimony, zinc, lead, tin, silver, molybdenum, vanadium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, calcium, and magnesium — have been considered separately and in the following manner : First, as to the metallurgical behavior of the elements in question; next, to deal with their influence on pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron, and steel; lastly, the special uses made of them, and their occurrence in manufactured objects....
Page 5 - ... per cent, ferromanganese. If a very rich iron is desired it can be obtained by raising the temperature of the blast and by putting more fuel in the burden. Attention however has to be given to the fact that a higher temperature also causes more silicon to be reduced, and as this element lessens the affinity of iron for carbon, it is...
Page 18 - ... per cent. carbon more or less increases or decreases the ultimate strength by about 6 kg. per sq. mm. A maximum of strength is obtained at about 1 per cent.
Page 96 - ... per cent., but the elastic limit rising more quickly, any increase in phosphorus will diminish the ductility, hence phosphorus makes steel brittle.
Page 6 - Sweden have not gone in for very hot blast (they continue using iron pipe stoves if they heat the blast at all) is that their forge iron has to be white and as low in silicon as possible. If the pig iron is to be remelted for foundry purposes it is clear that in a reverberatory furnace it will lose more carbon than in a cupola where there is carbon in contact with it.

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