Forging: Manual of Practical Instruction in Hand Forging of Wrought Iron, Machine Steel, and Tool Steel; Drop Forging; and Heat Treatment of Steel, Including Annealing, Hardening, and Tempering

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American Technical society, 1919 - Annealing of metals - 131 pages

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Page 114 - Selfhardening steel, as its name indicates, is almost self-hardening in nature, generally the only treatment that is required to harden the steel being to heat it red hot and allow it to cool. Sometimes the steel is cooled in an air blast or is dipped in oil. It is not necessary to "draw the temper".
Page 68 - If the point becomes overheated, it should not be dipped in water to cool off, but allowed to cool in the air to below the hardening heat and then reheated more carefully. When properly heated, the end should be hardened by dipping in cold water to the point B.
Page 28 - The scarfs are formed mostly with the pene end of the hammer. The illustration will explain itself. The stock should be well upset in either method. Welding Tool Steel. The general method of scarfing is the same in all welding but greater care must be used in heating when welding tool steel. The flux used for welding tool steel should be the salammoniac and borax mixture mentioned before.
Page 120 - In this method, a hardened steel ball is pressed into the smooth surface of the metal so as to make an indentation of a size such as can be conveniently measured under the microscope. The spherical area of the indentation being calculated, and the pressure being known, the stress per unit of area when the ball comes to rest is calculated, and the hardness number obtained. Within certain limits the value obtained is independent of the size of the ball, and of the amount of pressure.
Page 31 - Upsetting. When a piece is worked in such a way that its length is shortened and either or both its thickness and width increased, the piece is said to be upset and the operation is known as upsetting. There are several methods of upsetting, the one used depending largely upon the shape of the work. In short pieces the work is generally stood on end on the anvil, the hammering being done directly down upon the upper end. The work should always be kept straight, and as soon as a bend or kink is started,...
Page 12 - Ibs. and would be known as about a 300-pound anvil. Anvils are sometimes made of special shapes, but the one here shown is the common one. Tongs. Next to the hammer and anvil in importance and usage are the tongs. They vary in size from those suitable for holding the smallest wires to those capable of handling ingots and bars of many tons in weight. The jaws are also adapted to fit over the piece to be handled and are of a great variety of shapes. As the Fig. 7. requirements of each piece of work...
Page 42 - Bolts. Bolts are made by two methods, the head being made by either upsetting or welding. The first method is more common on small bolts and machine made bolts. The welded head is more commonly used for heavy, hand forged bolts. The upset head is the stronger provided both are equally well made, The size of the bolt is always given as the diameter and length of shank or stem. Thus a bolt known as J" X 6", or \" bolt 6" long, would mean a bolt having a shank V
Page 119 - In this form of apparatus a standard steel drill is caused to make a definite number of revolutions while it is pressed with standard force against the specimen to be tested. The hardness is automatically recorded on a diagram on which a dead soft material gives a horizontal line, while a material as hard as the drill itself gives a vertical line, intermediate hardness being represented by the corresponding...
Page 82 - jig" may consist of a set of cast-iron blocks. Fig. 157 illustrates a simple bend with the block used for doing the work. The work is done as shown at B. The piece to be bent is placed, as shown by the dotted lines, with the bending block on top.
Page 44 - Strike the projecting portion of the bar and upset it until the requisite thickness of head is obtained. This will probably leave a head of curVed but irregular outline. Remove from the header and square the head thus upset, on the face of the anvil. This will probably thicken the head. Again drop the cold end through the header and strike the head until it is reduced to proper thickness. After which, again square the edges on the face of the anvil. In doing this work, the smith will hold the header...

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