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public school winters. He entered Cornell College at sixteen, supporting himself while pursuing his studies. In 1878 he began the study of law in the office of Charles A. Bishop and two years later was admitted to the bar and began practice at La Porte. In 1889 he removed to Vinton and soon became a prominent leader in the Democratic party, serving on the State Central Committee, and was for seven years secretary or chairman of the executive committee. In 1887 he was chairman of the committee, and in 1888 was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. In 1892 he was again a delegate and served as secretary of the National Convention. In 1893 he was president of the Democratic State Convention. In 1894 he was appointed by President Cleveland United States Attorney for the Northern District of Iowa. In 1899 he was again president of the Democratic State Convention and in 1900 chairman of the Iowa delegation in the National Democratic Convention at Kansas City. Mr. Sells served on the staff of Governor Boies for four years and in 1892 was elected trustee of the State College of Agriculture.

ELIJAH SELLS was born in Franklin County, Ohio, February 14, 1814. His father served under General Harrison in the War of 1812. The son came to Iowa in 1841, locating at Muscatine, where he engaged in business. He took a deep interest in the free soil movement and at one of the early Whig conventions secured the adoption of resolutions declaring it to be the duty of Congress to prohibit slavery in the Territories. This was the first convention in the State to make the declaration which afterwards became the cardinal doctrine of the Republican party. In 1844 he was a member of the First Constitutional Convention. He was elected a member of the First General Assembly of the State and again in 1852 served in the House. Mr. Sells was a delegate to the convention which organized the Republican party, was nominated for Secretary of State and elected. He was twice reelected, serving six years. In 1863 he was appointed paymaster in the army and afterwards held a position in the navy. He also served as Third Auditor of the Treasury. In 1865 he was appointed superintendent of Indian Affairs in one of the southern districts and removed to Kansas. He served three terms in the Kansas Legislature and in 1878 removed to Utah. In 1889 he was appointed Secretary of Utah Territory, serving four years. Mr. Sells died at Salt Lake City. March 13. 1897.

JOSHUA M. SHAFFER was born in Washington, Pennsylvania, September 13, 1830, where he attended the common schools, graduating from the Medical Department of the Pennsylvania University. He has received the degrees of A. B., A. M. and M. D. In 1852 he came to Iowa, making his home at Fairfield, in Jefferson County, where he practiced medicine. In 1854 he was one of the organizers of the State Agricultural Society and its first secretary; he served in that capacity at different times for fourteen years, doing very much to make the State fairs successful. In 1862 he was elected to the State Senate to fill the unexpired term of James F. Wilson, elected to Congress. For many years he was secretary and librarian of the Jefferson County Library. During the Civil War he was surgeon of the Board of Enrollment from 1863 to 1865. In 1876-7 Dr. Shaffer was a lecturer at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk where he had taken up his residence. For many years he was a trustee of the Unitarian Society at Keokuk, and later secretary of the board of trustees. The doctor has for many years been a student of natural science, and for twenty-five years has been a promoter of cremation as against earth burial, and is a member of an association pledged to the cremation of their own bodies. During the mature years of his life Dr. Shaffer has been a continuous contributor to the press on a variety of subjects of interest to the public, always working for some worthy purpose.

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH is a native of Iowa, born at Elvira, January 29, 1871. He acquired his education at the Iowa City Academy and the State University of Iowa, and was fellow in the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, in 1893-95. In the latter year he became instructor in the University of Iowa, assistant professor in 1896 and Professor of Political Science in 1897. Professor Shambaugh is a curator of the State Historical Society at Iowa City and editor of the Iowa Journal of History and Politics. He has written much of value to the student of Iowa history, including three volumes on "Documentary Material Relating to the History of Iowa," "Fragments of Debates of the Constitutional Conventions of 1844 and 1846," and a "History of the Constitutions of Iowa."

JOHN SHANE was born in Jefferson County, Ohio, on the 26th of May, 1822, and was educated at Jefferson College. He studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's great Secretary of War and was admitted to the bar in 1848, beginning practice at Steubenville. In 1855, he removed to Iowa, locating at Vinton where he engaged in the practice of law. He was a delegate to the State Convention which organized the Republican party at Iowa City in 1856. He entered the military service as captain of Company G, Thirteenth Infantry in 1861, in October was promoted to major and was in the Battle of Shiloh. Soon after he became lieutenant-colonel and in March, 1863, was promoted to colonel of the regiment. He served in this position with distinction until November, 1864, when the term of enlistment expired. In 1871 Colonel Shane was elected on the Republican ticket to the State Senate, serving four years. In 1876 he was appointed judge of the Eighth Judicial District and was elected in 1878 for a full term but was stricken with paralysis before the expiration and resigned. He died on the 18th of September, 1899.

ALBERT SHAW, journalist, was born at Shandon, Ohio, July 23, 1857. He came to Iowa when a young man, entering Iowa College at Grinnell where he graduated in 1879. He first entered upon journalism by securing an interest in the Grinnell Herald but still continued his studies under Professor Macy, giving special attention to constitutional history and economic science. In 1881 he entered Johns Hopkins University as a graduate student, and while there attracted the notice of James Bryce who was preparing his "American Commonwealth," and availed himself of Mr. Shaw's knowledge of western political and social conditions. In 1883 Mr. Shaw secured a position on the Minneapolis Tribune but returned to Johns Hopkins taking the degree of Ph. D. He then resumed work on the Tribune. While pursuing his studies he wrote a book called "Icaria; A Chapter in the History of Communism," which became his thesis, was translated and published in Germany where it won the author an enviable reputation. After spending two years in study in Europe he gave lectures at Cornell, Johns Hopkins and Michigan Universities. In 1891 he was invited to establish the American Review of Reviews of which he has since been the editor. He is the author of "Municipal Government in Great Britain;" "Municipal Government in Continental Europe;" a "History of the Spanish-American War; " "History of the United States from the Civil War to the Close of the Nineteenth Century." Dr. Shaw is a member of the American Economic Association, American Antiquarian Society, a fellow of the American Statistical Society and the New York Academy of Political Science. The Outlook says:

"Dr. Shaw has a catholicity of feeling and knowledge which very few Americans possess . . . and is one of the few journalists in this country who treat their work from the professional standpoint, who are thoroughly equipped for it and who regard themselves as standing in a responsible relation to a great and intelligent public."

LESLIE M. SHAW, sixteenth Governor of Iowa, was born in Morristown, Vermont, November 2, 1848, was reared on a farm and attended the Academy of Morrisville. He came to Iowa in 1869 and entered Cornell College at Mount Vernon, from which he graduated in 1874. Mr. Shaw was dependent upon his own exertions for the means to defray his expenses while attending the Iowa College of Law. These he met by work in the harvest field, teaching and selling nursery stock. In 1876 he located at Denison in Crawford County and began the practice of law. He was a hard worker and soon won a prominent position at the bar. Mr. Shaw began the accumulation of a library and in time possessed one of the best collections of law books in the State. He was a liberal contributor to the establishment of the Academy and Normal School at Denison, engaged in

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banking and became president of a bank at Denison and also at Manilla. In the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. Shaw for the first time took an active part in politics and in the discussion of the money issue he made able arguments for the gold standard which attracted attention and gave him a State-wide reputation as an effective public speaker. In 1897 he was nominated by the Republican State Convention for Governor and after a spirited canvass was elected by a majority of over 11,000. Two years later he was reelected by a majority of more than 44,000. In 1898 he was president of the Sound Money Convention at Indianapolis, where his speech was considered an able defense of the gold standard. Upon the expiration of his second term in January, 1902, Governor Shaw was appointed by President Roosevelt Secretary of the Treasury.

WILLIAM T. SHAW was born in Steuben, Washington County, Maine, on the 22d of September, 1822. He was educated in the Maine Wesleyan Seminary and went to Kentucky where he taught school for some time. When the Mexican War began he at once enlisted and served through the war taking part in many of the principal battles. In 1849 and in 1852 he led parties across the great western plains which were then unsettled and infested with hostile Indians. In 1853 he came to Iowa, locating at Anamosa. Upon the organization of the Fourteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry Mr. Shaw was appointed by Governor Kirkwood, colonel. He led the regiment in the thickest of the fight at the Battle of Fort Donelson and again at Shiloh where his regiment was assailed by overwhelming numbers and forced to surrender. At the disastrous Battle of Pleasant Hill, Colonel Shaw commanded a brigade and made a most gallant fight, aiding greatly in saving General Banks' army from disaster. In a letter written soon after the battle he exposed the incompetency and drunkenness of certain of his superior officers and they took their revenge by procuring his dismissal from the service. It was the general opinion of his associates in the Red River campaign that he richly deserved promotion to the rank of Brigadier-General. In 1875 he was elected on the Republican ticket a member of the House of the Sixteenth General Assembly.

STEPHEN B. SHELLEDY was born in Kentucky in 1802. He camo to Iowa in 1842 and took up his residence at "Tool's Point" (now Monroe) , then in Mahaska County. He was elected by the Whigs to the First Constitutional Convention which assembled that year. In 1845 he was chosen to represent Mahaska, Washington and Keokuk counties in the House of the Territorial Legislature and was reelected, serving until Iowa became a State. He was a member of the Second Constitutional Convention which framed the organic law under which the Territory became a State. In 1854 he was a member of the Whig State Committee which managed the campaign that resulted in the election of James W. Grimes,

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