## GeodynamicsFirst published in 1982, Don Turcotte and Jerry Schubert's Geodynamics became a classic textbook for several generations of students of geophysics and geology. The authors bring this text completely up-to-date in this second edition. Important additions include a chapter on chemical geodynamics, an updated coverage of comparative planetology based on recent planetary missions, and a variety of other new topics. Geodynamics provides the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the workings of the solid earth, describing the mechanics of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building in the context of the role of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Observations such as the earth's gravity field, surface heat flow, distribution of earthquakes, surface stresses and strains, and distribution of elements are discussed. |

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### Contents

Plate Tectonics | 1 |

12 The Lithosphere | 5 |

13 Accreting Plate Boundaries | 6 |

14 Subduction | 9 |

15 Transform Faults | 13 |

16 Hotspots and Mantle Plumes | 14 |

17 Continents | 17 |

18 Paleomagnetism and the Motion of the Plates | 22 |

54 The Gravitational Potential and the Geoid | 201 |

55 Moments of Inertia | 205 |

56 Surface Gravity Anomalies | 207 |

57 Bouguer Gravity Formula | 210 |

511 Compensation Due to Lithospheric Flexure | 214 |

512 Isostatic Geoid Anomalies | 216 |

513 Compensation Models and Observed Geoid Anomalies | 219 |

514 Forces Required to Maintain Topography and the Geoid | 223 |

19 Triple Junctions | 35 |

110 The Wilson Cycle | 38 |

111 Continental Collisions | 41 |

112 Volcanism and Heat Flow | 46 |

113 Seismicity and the State of Stress in the Lithosphere | 49 |

114 The Driving Mechanism | 54 |

115 Comparative Planetology | 55 |

116 The Moon | 56 |

117 Mercury | 58 |

118 Mars | 59 |

119 Phobos and Deimos | 64 |

120 Venus | 65 |

121 The Galilean Satellites | 67 |

Stress and Strain in Solids | 73 |

23 Stress in Two Dimensions | 80 |

24 Stress in Three Dimensions | 83 |

25 Pressures in the Deep Interiors of Planets | 84 |

26 Stress Measurement | 85 |

27 Basic Ideas about Strain | 87 |

28 Strain Measurements | 94 |

Elasticity and Flexure | 105 |

32 Linear Elasticity | 106 |

34 Uniaxial Strain | 108 |

35 Plane Stress | 109 |

36 Plane Strain | 111 |

38 Isotropic Stress | 112 |

310 Bending of Plates under Applied Moments and Vertical Loads | 116 |

311 Buckling of a Plate under a Horizontal Load | 118 |

312 Deformation of Strata Overlying an Igneous Intrusion | 119 |

313 Application to the Earths Lithosphere | 121 |

314 Periodic Loading | 122 |

315 Stability of the Earths Lithosphere under an End Load | 123 |

316 Bending of the Elastic Lithosphere under the Loads of Island Chains | 124 |

317 Bending of the Elastic Lithosphere at an Ocean Trench | 127 |

318 Flexure and the Structure of Sedimentary Basins | 129 |

Heat Transfer | 132 |

43 Measuring the Earths Surface Heat Flux | 133 |

44 The Earths Surface Heat Flow | 135 |

45 Heat Generation by the Decay of Radioactive Elements | 136 |

46 OneDimensional Steady Heat Conduction with Volumetric Heat Production | 138 |

47 A Conduction Temperature Profile for the Mantle | 140 |

48 Continental Geotherms | 141 |

49 Radial Heat Conduction in a Sphere or Spherical Shell | 144 |

410 Temperatures in the Moon | 145 |

411 Steady Two and ThreeDimensional Heat Conduction | 146 |

412 Subsurface Temperature Due to Periodic Surface Temperature and Topography | 147 |

413 OneDimensional TimeDependent Heat Conduction | 149 |

Diurnal and Seasonal Changes in Subsurface Temperature | 150 |

415 Instantaneous Heating or Cooling of a SemiInfinite HalfSpace | 153 |

416 Cooling of the Oceanic Lithosphere | 157 |

417 Plate Cooling Model of the Lithosphere | 161 |

418 The Stefan Problem | 162 |

419 Solidification of a Dike or Sill | 166 |

Thermal Effects of Erosion and Sedimentation | 168 |

421 OneDimensional Unsteady Heat Conduction in an Infinite Region | 169 |

422 Thermal Stresses | 171 |

423 Ocean Floor Topography | 174 |

424 Changes in Sea Level | 178 |

425 Thermal and Subsidence History of Sedimentary Basins | 179 |

Island Arc Volcanism and Melting on the Surface of the Descending Slab | 184 |

428 Mantle Geotherms and Adiabats | 185 |

429 Thermal Structure of the Subducted Lithosphere | 190 |

430 Culling Model for the Erosion and Deposition of Sediments | 191 |

Gravity | 195 |

53 Centrifugal Acceleration and the Acceleration of Gravity | 200 |

Fluid Mechanics | 226 |

63 Asthenospheric Counterflow | 230 |

64 Pipe Flow | 231 |

65 Artesian Aquifer Flows | 233 |

66 Flow Through Volcanic Pipes | 234 |

68 Elemental Force Balance in Two Dimensions | 235 |

69 The Stream Function | 237 |

610 Postglacial Rebound | 238 |

611 Angle of Subduction | 242 |

612 Diapirism | 244 |

613 Folding | 249 |

614 Stokes Flow | 254 |

615 Plume Heads and Tails | 259 |

616 Pipe Flow with Heat Addition | 262 |

617 Aquifer Model for Hot Springs | 264 |

618 Thermal Convection | 266 |

619 Linear Stability Analysis for the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Fluid Heated from Below | 267 |

620 A Transient BoundaryLayer Theory for FiniteAmplitude Thermal Convection | 272 |

621 A SteadyState BoundaryLayer Theory for FiniteAmplitude Thermal Convection | 274 |

622 The Forces that Drive Plate Tectonics | 280 |

623 Heating by Viscous Dissipation | 283 |

624 Mantle Recycling and Mixing | 285 |

Rock Rheology | 292 |

72 Elasticity | 293 |

73 Diffusion Creep | 300 |

74 Dislocation Creep | 307 |

75 Shear Flows of Fluids with Temperature and StressDependent Rheologies | 311 |

76 Mantle Rheology | 318 |

77 Rheological Effects on Mantle Convection | 323 |

78 Mantle Convection and the Cooling of the Earth | 325 |

79 Crustal Rheology | 327 |

710 Viscoelasticity | 329 |

711 ElasticPerfectly Plastic Behavior | 333 |

Faulting | 339 |

83 Friction on Faults | 341 |

84 Anderson Theory of Faulting | 343 |

85 Strength Envelope | 347 |

87 Earthquakes | 350 |

88 San Andreas Fault | 355 |

89 North Anatolian Fault | 359 |

810 Some Elastic Solutions for StrikeSlip Faulting | 361 |

811 Stress Diffusion | 367 |

812 Thermally Activated Creep on Faults | 368 |

Flows in Porous Media | 374 |

93 Permeability Models | 375 |

94 Flow in Confined Aquifers | 376 |

95 Flow in Unconfined Aquifers | 378 |

96 Geometrical Form of Volcanoes | 387 |

97 Equations of Conservation of Mass Momentum and Energy for Flow in Porous Media | 390 |

98 OneDimensional Advection of Heat in a Porous Medium | 391 |

99 Thermal Convection in a Porous Layer | 393 |

910 Thermal Plumes in FluidSaturated Porous Media | 396 |

911 Porous Flow Model for Magma Migration | 402 |

912 TwoPhase Convection | 405 |

Chemical Geodynamics | 410 |

102 Radioactivity and Geochronology | 411 |

103 Geochemical Reservoirs | 415 |

104 A TwoReservoir Model with Instantaneous Crustal Differentiation | 417 |

105 Noble Gas Systems | 423 |

106 Isotope Systematics of OIB | 424 |

Symbols and Units | 429 |

Physical Constants and Properties | 433 |

Answers to Selected Problems | 437 |

441 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

angle aquifer associated assume asthenosphere atoms basaltic bending boundary conditions boundary layer coefficient constant continental crust cooling creep crustal deformation density depth descending lithosphere determine diffusion diffusion creep dislocation displacement distance Earth earthquake element energy Equa fluid layer fraction function geoid geoid anomaly geological given by Equation given in Figure gradient gravity anomaly half-space heat conduction heat flux horizontal hotspot illustrated in Figure integration isotope isotope ratios lattice linear lithosphere magma mantle convection mantle rock mass measured melting obtained occurs ocean ridge ocean trenches oceanic crust oceanic lithosphere plane plate tectonics plume porous pressure PROBLEM radioactive radius Rayleigh number relative result rotation San Andreas fault seafloor sediments seismic shear stress shown in Figure solid solution strain rate subduction substituting Equation surface heat flow thermal boundary layer thickness tion topography unit area upper mantle velocity vertical viscosity volcanism zero zone