Challenges to The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Theory and Experiment
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 15, 2005 - Science - 347 pages
The advance of scienti?c thought in ways resembles biological and geologic transformation: long periods of gradual change punctuated by episodes of radical upheaval. Twentieth century physics witnessed at least three major shifts — relativity, quantum mechanics and chaos theory — as well many lesser ones. Now, st early in the 21 , another shift appears imminent, this one involving the second law of thermodynamics. Over the last 20 years the absolute status of the second law has come under increased scrutiny, more than during any other period its 180-year history. Since the early 1980’s, roughly 50 papers representing over 20 challenges have appeared in the refereed scienti?c literature. In July 2002, the ?rst conference on its status was convened at the University of San Diego, attended by 120 researchers from 25 countries (QLSL2002) . In 2003, the second edition of Le?’s and Rex’s classic anthology on Maxwell demons appeared , further raising interest in this emerging ?eld. In 2004, the mainstream scienti?c journal Entropy published a special edition devoted to second law challenges . And, in July 2004, an echo of QLSL2002 was held in Prague, Czech Republic . Modern second law challenges began in the early 1980’s with the theoretical proposals of Gordon and Denur. Starting in the mid-1990’s, several proposals for experimentally testable challenges were advanced by Sheehan, et al. By the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, a rapid succession of theoretical quantum mechanical ? challenges were being advanced by C ́ apek, et al.
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adiabatic asymmetric atoms average behavior blackbody cavity capacitor Capek cavity walls central system charge chemical classical Clausius collisions constant coupling cycle density matrix dephasing depletion region detailed balance dielectric DSPG dynamics effect electric field electron electrostatic entropy production equation equilibrium experimental experiments Figure filaments finite fluctuations flux force formalism free energy gas phase gas-surface gradient Hamiltonian heat bath HS-B iK/h initial condition interaction irreversible kinetic linear Liouville equation load loop Loschmidt macroscopic magnitude Maxwell Maxwell's demon membrane molecular molecules momentum nonequilibrium operators oscillation paradox parameters particle phase space phonon Phys physical piston plasma Plate potential energy pressure probe processes quantum mechanical reaction regime relaxation roughly scale lengths second law challenges second law violation Sheehan simulations specific standard device statistical steady-state superconducting superoperator suprathermal surface system-bath temperature theoretical theory thermodynamic entropy thermodynamic limit thermosynthetic transfer transition vacuum values velocity distributions versus voltage zero
Page 341 - ... all the labours of the ages, all the devotion, all the inspiration, all the noonday brightness of human genius, are destined to extinction in the vast death of the solar system, and that the whole temple of Man's achievement must inevitably be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins...
Page 341 - We have looked through the window on to the world provided by the Second Law, and have seen the naked purposelessness of nature. The deep structure of change is decay; the spring of change in all its forms is the corruption of the quality of energy as it spreads chaotically, irreversibly and purposelessly in time. All change, and time's arrow, point in the direction of corruption. The experience of time is the gearing of the electrochemical processes in our brains to this purposeless drift into chaos...