Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s
As the Depression engulfed the United States in the early 1930s, fear and anxiety spread that Mexicans were taking jobs and welfare benefits away from "real" Americans. Local, state, and national officials launched massive efforts to get rid of the Mexicans. Eventually more than a million were shipped back to Mexico. In this book the impact of the forced relocation on both sides of the border is carefully appraised. Mexicans and their children were repatriated indiscriminately because it was assumed they were a costly burden to taxpayers. However, as the authors painstakingly document, few socio-economic benefits were received by Mexicans. Nonetheless, a horrific toll was extracted from individuals, families, and entire barrios due to the anti-Mexican hysteria. In Mexico, the return of native sons and daughters and their American-born children sorely strained the social and agrarian reforms initiated by President Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940) and his predecessors. Prior to this study, scholars had never addressed that aspect of repatriation. By combining extensive archival research with oral history testimony, the authors have created a compelling narrative that blends individual recollections with scholarly interpretation.
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Abelardo Rodríguez agricultural aliens American citizens Angeles County ASRE assistance Baja California Balderrama Beteta Board of Supervisors border Cárdenas Cárdenas's Chicago Chihuahua Ciudad Juárez Clements Colina colonias colonization Comisión compatriots consular deportation depression Detroit dollars efforts El Universal emigrate employment Enrique Excélsior farm federal foreign Gamio government's Governor groups hectares Ibid Immigration Service Imprenta indigent irrigation José La Opinión land living Los Angeles County Lucas Lucio Manuel Manuel Gamio March Martínez Master's thesis ment Mexi Mexican Americans Mexican community Mexican consuls Mexican families Mexican government Mexican immigrants Mexican Labor Mexican Nationals Mexican workers Mexico City Migration newspaper official parents Pascual Ortiz Rubio Paso percent pesos Press problems railroad Ramón Relaciones Exteriores relief repatriates repatriation movement residents return to Mexico Rodríguez San Antonio Secretaría de Relaciones situation social Southern California Spanish Texas thousand tion Torres trip United Valenciana interview welfare women