Ancient Angels: Conceptualizing Angeloi in the Roman Empire
Although angels are typically associated with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Ancient Angels demonstrates that angels (angeloi) were also a prominent feature of non-Abrahamic religions in the Roman era. Following an interdisciplinary approach, the study uses literary, inscriptional, and archaeological evidence to examine Roman conceptions of angels, how residents of the empire venerated angels, and how Christian authorities responded to this potentially heterodox aspect of Roman religion. The book brings together the evidence for popular beliefs about angels in Roman religion, demonstrating the widespread nature of speculation about, and veneration of, angels in the Roman Empire
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Aether Aion All-Seeing Aether amulets Anatolia angeli angelos invocation angelos veneration Anna Perenna Apollo appears archaeological Archangel argued Asia Minor associated Augustine Augustine’s belief Bethesda Pool Canon Celsus chapter Chonae Christian authorities church Clarian oracle Colossae Colossians Constantine Contra Celsum Corinth cult daemones dedications defixiones describe discussion divine early Christian Epiphanius Eusebius Eutropia evidence example forms of angelos formula Fountain Gnostic gods grave stelai Greek text Grégoire Guarducci Hekate Hellenic heroization Holy Hosios and Dikaios inscribed intermediary invoke angeloi Jewish Jews Judaism Kiourtzian 2000 Lactantius Lamps late antiquity later Roman Lykidas Mamre Mên Michael Mitchell non-Christian notes Oenoanda Oenoanda inscription oracle oracle’s oracular Origen pagan phylactery prayer refer religion religious traditions reveals Rothaus Roubes Sheppard shrines similar Sozomen stele Stratonikeia suggests Synod of Laodicea term angelos Theodoret Theos Hypsistos Theosophy Theran angelos Theran epitaphs tion tomb University Press word angelos Zeus Zeus Hypsistos δὲ καὶ οἱ τοῦ