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action air-pump angle angle of incidence apparatus atmosphere axis bright cause centimetres centre of gravity colours column conductor crystal cylinder decimetre density diminishes direction disc distance earth electricity electrified equal equilibrium experiment extremities fall gaseous gases give glass heat heat-rays horizontal hydrostatic balance Iceland spar immersed increases instrument intensity interior iron kilogramme Lastly laws length lens Leyden jar light liquid luminous point luminous rays magnetic major second measure mercury metallic metres millimetres mirror molecules movement needle nodal lines number of vibrations object observed obtained oscillations parallel passes pendulum phenomena physicists pile piston placed plane plate polarized poles position pressure principal prism produced propagated proved reflected refraction scale screen seen solar sonorous sound specific gravity spectrum stratum string substances surface temperature thermometer tion tourmaline traversed tube vapour varies velocity vertical vessel voltaic pile volume waves weight whilst
Page 333 - The fact that the yellow light given out when salt is thrown on burning spirit consists almost solely of the two nearly identical qualities which constitute that double bright line. (4) Observations made by Stokes himself, which showed the bright line D to be absent in a candleflame when the wick was snuffed clean, so as not to project into the luminous envelope, and from an alcohol flame when the spirit was burned in a watch-glass. And (5) Foucault's admirable discovery (L''Institut, Feb.
Page 356 - So that, generally, representing the interval between each soldier by an elastic cord, if the barrack and the eye approach each other by the motion of either, the cord will contract ; in the case of recession, the cord will stretch. Now let the barrack represent the hydrogen on the sun, perpetually paying out waves of light, and let the elastic cord represent one of these waves ; its length will be changed if the hydrogen and the eye approach each other by the motion of either. Particular wave-lengths...
Page 336 - ... other gaseous or vaporous, which give out exactly equal amounts of light, then the bright lines of the latter will be brighter than those parts of the spectrum of the other to which they correspond in colour or refrangibility. Again, if the gaseous or vaporous substance gives out but few lines, then, although the light which emanates from it may be much less brilliant than that radiated by a solid or liquid, the light may be so localized, and therefore intensified, in one case, and so spread...
Page 490 - The vast influence which the ocean must exert, as a moderator of climate, here suggests itself. The heat of summer is stored up in the ocean, and slowly given out during the winter. This is one cause of the absence of extremes in an island climate.
Page 334 - ... it has two fundamental notes or vibrations of approximately equal pitch ; and that the periods of these vibrations are precisely the periods of the two slightly different yellow lights constituting the double bright line D. (3) That when vapour of sodium is at a high enough temperature to become itself a source of light, each atom executes these two fundamental vibrations simultaneously ; and that therefore the light proceeding from it is of the two qualities constituting the double bright line...
Page 336 - I am sure know, is scattered broadcast, so to speak, by the prism into a long band of light, called a continuous spectrum, because from one end of it to the other the light is persistent. The light from gaseous and vaporous bodies, on the contrary, is most brilliant in a few channels ; it is husbanded, and, instead of being scattered broadcast over a long band, is limited to a few lines in the band — in some cases to a very few lines. Hence, if we have two bodies, one solid or liquid and the other...
Page 334 - That when vapor of sodium is present in space across which light from another source is propagated, its atoms, according to a well-known general principle of dynamics, are set to vibrate in either or both of those fundamental modes, if some of the incident light is of one or other of their periods, or some of one and some of the other ; so that the energy of the waves of those particular qualities of light is converted into thermal vibrations of the medium, and dispersed in all directions, while...
Page 336 - ... spectroscope appear much brighter than the corresponding parts of the spectrum of the more lustrous solid body. Now here comes a very important point : supposing the continuous spectrum of a solid or liquid to be mixed with the discontinuous spectrum of a gas, we can, by increasing the number of prisms in a spectroscope, dilute the continuous spectrum of the solid or liquid body very much indeed, and the dispersion will not seemingly reduce the brilliancy of the lines given out by the gas ; as...
Page 333 - The observational and experimental foundations on which he built were:— (1) The discovery by Fraunhofer of a coincidence between his double dark line D of the solar spectrum and a double bright line which he observed in the spectra of ordinary artificial flames. (2) A very rigorous experimental test of this coincidence by Prof.
Page 320 - ... different for a different form of the curve. May not the colours of the fixed stars be owing to a difference of this kind? white will acquire a tinge of yellow ; if the blue and green be successively stopped, this yellow will grow more and more ruddy, and pass through orange to scarlet and blood red. If, on the other hand, the red end of the spectrum be stopped, and more and more of the less refrangible portion thus successively abstracted from the beam, the white will pass first into pale, and...