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AlPO4 atoms attachment energy autoclave Bennema Berlinite bonds c-BN CdTe chalcopyrite chemical chemical bath deposition coefficient compounds concentration Cryst CRYSTAL and EPITAXIAL crystal growth crystallographic curves dendrite dendrite growth density deposition diamond diffraction domain walls EPITAXIAL GROWTH equation experimental faces fat crystals Figure FILM SOLAR CELL flow frequency Frontier Science Research Frontiers in Science GaPO grain boundaries grown crystal growth rate heteroepitaxy hydrothermal growth impurity interface Japan Energy Corporation lattice Laudise Lett magnetic field material melt meridional flow method micropipes misfit dislocations modules obtained parameters periodically poled phase phosphoric acid Photovoltaic Phys piezoelectric polytype pressure quartz quartz crystals region Science and Technology seed crystal semiconductor Series on Frontiers shows SiC crystals silicon single crystals SOLAR CELL SOLAR CELL DEVICES solubility solution growth solvent stacking faults Stefan University Press structure substrates supersaturation surface thermal THIN FILM SOLAR University Press Series vapor wafer ZnSe
Page 101 - It is better, on this account, in graduating the bottle, to make two scratches as represented in the drawing, one at the top and the other at the bottom of the curve : this prevents any future mistake.
Page 171 - HM Hobgood, DL Barrett, JP McHugh, RC Clarke, S. Sriram, AA Burk, J. Greggi CD Brandt, RH Hopkins, and WJ Choyke, J. Cryst. Growth 137, 181 (1994).
Page 164 - ... methodology for expanding the single crystal area without degrading crystal quality. The difficulty in growing high-quality crystals rapidly increases as the crystal diameter increases, and various technological problems have become apparent in the diameter enlargement process. To avoid these problems, a high degree of control of both the transient and continuous thermal profiles during growth is required. However, experimental optimization of such growth parameters usually takes much effort...
Page 160 - The fact that micropipes appear stable and propagate in the crystal implies that there exists a large kinetic energy barrier to nucleate a dislocation in SiC crystals adjacent to micropipes. This kinetic barrier may be reduced by optimizing the growth conditions, and micropipes are dissociated.
Page 169 - Figure 8a illustrates the atomic configuration of the 6H( 1 100) surface seen from the [1 120] direction. The 6H(1 100) surface is assumed to comprise (1 102) and (1 102) microsurfaces of three Si-C bilayers, which are alternately arranged in the <0001> direction. As seen in the figure, the ( 1 102) and ( 1 102) microsurfaces have bond configurations identical to (0001)C and (OOOl)Si, respectively.
Page 172 - D. Hofmann, R. Eckstein, M. Kolbl, Y. Makarov, St.G. Muller, E. Schmitt, A. Winnacker, R. Rupp, R. Stein, J. Volkl: J.
Page 169 - Stacking fault generation may relax this disregistry and relieve the associated large localized strains at the boundaries. The difference between 6H (1 100) and 4H (1 100) is the width of microsurfaces; narrower microsurfaces on 4H (1100).
Page 161 - SiC devices are still largely hindered by the presence of crystallographic defects other than micropipes. in particular, low angle grain boundaries (subgrain boundaries) are another critical defect which prevents the implementation of large-size (>lcm2) SiC devices.