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acid aeration alkalinity alum American Water amount apparatus backwash bicarbonate blowdown blowoff boiler water brine calcium and magnesium calcium carbonate calcium sulphate carbon dioxide carbonate hardness cause chemical solution chlorine coagulation combination concentration condenser corrosion deaerating dissolved solids effect embrittlement Engineering Chemistry evaporator excess filtration grains per gallon gravity hard water hydroxide impurities Industrial and Engineering ions iron Journal lime and soda-ash lime-soda Magnesium bicarbonate magnesium hydroxide make-up water manganese noncarbonate hardness operation organic matter phosphate pipe precipitate prevent pump rapid sand filter rate of flow raw water react reaction tank remove residual salts sand bed sedimentation settling basin settling tank silicate slow sand filter sludge soda ash sodium alkalinity sodium carbonate sodium sulphate soft water soluble steam suspended matter tastes and odors tion total hardness treated water turbidity valve wash water Water Softening Water Treatment Water Works Association zeolite softener