Revised and fully updated, the second edition of this graduate textbook offers a comprehensive explanation of the technology and physics of LEDs such as infrared, visible-spectrum, ultraviolet, and white LEDs made from III-V semiconductors. Elementary properties such as electrical and optical characteristics are reviewed, followed by the analysis of advanced device structures. With nine additional chapters, the treatment of LEDs has been vastly expanded, including new material on device packaging, reflectors, UV LEDs, III-V nitride materials, solid-state sources for illumination applications, and junction temperature. Radiative and non-radiative recombination dynamics, methods for improving light extraction, high-efficiency and high-power device designs, white-light emitters with wavelength-converting phosphor materials, optical reflectors, and spontaneous recombination in resonant-cavity structures are discussed in detail. With exercises, solutions, and illustrative examples, this textbook will be of interest to scientists and engineers working on LEDs and graduate students in electrical engineering, applied physics, and materials science.
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Radiative and nonradiative recombination
Theory of radiative recombination
The AlGaInN material system and ultraviolet emitters
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absorption acceptors active region AlGaAs AlGaInP AlGaN angle Appl band bandgap bandgap energy blue calculated carrier concentration cavity chromaticity coordinates chromaticity diagram coefficient color temperature color-rendering index confinement layer Craford current-spreading layer device diffusion dislocations double heterostructure electroluminescent electrons and holes emission spectrum emission wavelength emitters emitting diodes encapsulant enhancement epitaxial equation etal extraction efficiency forward voltage GaAs substrate GaAsP GaInN given heterostructure illumination increases interface internal quantum efficiency laser lattice LEDs emitting Lett light source light-emitting diodes lm/W luminescence luminous efficiency luminous flux material system microcavities minority carrier Nakamura non-radiative recombination optical fibers optical mode optical power p-n junction p-type phosphor photon Phys planckian quantum efficiency radiative efficiency RCLED reflectors refractive index resonance Schubert E. F. semiconductor shown in Fig spectral spontaneous emission structure thickness total internal reflection transparent wavelength white LEDs white light
Page 2 - During an investigation of the unsymmetrical passage of current through a contact of carborundum and other substances a curious phenomenon was noted. On applying a potential of 10 volts between two points on a crystal of carborundum, the crystal gave out a yellowish light.