## Statistical PhysicsThe laws of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics form one of the most fascinating branches of physics, and this text imparts some of this fascination to the student. The rapid growth in scientific knowledge means that an undergraduate physics course can no longer teach the whole of physics. With this in mind Professor Mandl has written a book which allows great flexibility in its use; it enables readers to proceed by the quickest route to a particular topic, and it enables teachers to select courses differing in length, difficulty and choice of applications. The aim of the text is to explain critically the basic laws of statistical physics and to apply them to a wide range of interesting problems. A reader who has mastered this book should have no difficulties with one of the more advanced treatises or with tackling quite realistic problems. Two substantial improvements have been incorporated into this second edition - firstly much greater prominence has been given to the Gibbs distribution, and secondly the treatment of magnetic work has been completely revised. |

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### Contents

THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS | 1 |

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS I | 31 |

PARAMAGNETISM | 68 |

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adiabatic atoms black-body radiation Boltzmann calculate capacity at constant Chapter chemical potential classical gas consider constant volume corresponding crystal curve defined definition degrees of freedom density depends derive dipoles discussion Einstein enclosure energy levels entropy entropy change equation equipartition theorem example expression extensive quantity factor fermions ﬂuctuations ﬂuid follows from Eq frequency gases Gibbs free energy given by Eq heat bath helium Helmholtz free energy Hence independent integral interaction isolated system isothermal kinetic energy lattice liquid low temperatures macroscopic system magnetic field microstates molecules momentum motion mutual field energy number of particles obtain occur paramagnetic particle number partition function perfect classical gas perfect gas phase space photon piston problem properties quantities quantum reaction result reversible rotational Schottky defects section 2.3 shown in Fig single-particle solenoid solid spin statistical weight subsystems theory thermal equilibrium thermodynamic variables velocity vibrational waves zero