The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War
Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford
OUP USA, Aug 23, 2012 - Psychology - 546 pages
This text reviews and discusses the evolutionary psychological literature on violence, homicide, and war in humans and nonhumans, and in doing so we argue that an evolutionary perspective can substantially enhance our understanding of these behaviors. We provide a brief primer on evolutionary psychology, describing basic tenets of the field. The theories of sexual selection and parental investment are explained and subsequently used to highlight the evolutionary logic underlying the use of violence by humans and other animals. Our examination of violent behavior begins with a focus on nonhuman animals, reviewing the different contexts in which violence occurs and discussing how an evolutionary perspective can explain why it occurs in these contexts. We then examine violence in humans and illustrate the similarities and differences between human and nonhuman violence. Finally, we summarize what an evolutionary perspective can offer in terms of understanding violence, homicide, and war, and we discuss directions for future research.
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adaptive adolescents adult aggres aggression American animal attacks behavior beneﬁts biological bonobos bullying Buss Cambridge child chimpanzees coalitional combat competition conﬂict context cuckoldry culture of honor Daly 86 Wilson death deﬁned deﬁnition developmental dominance emotional Ethology evolution evolutionary perspective Evolutionary Psychology females ﬁght ﬁghting ﬁnd ﬁndings ﬁrst ﬁtness gender genes genetic Global Peace Index homicide homicide-suicide hominins human nature hunter-gatherer hypothesis individuals infanticide inﬁdelity inﬂuence interactions intergroup intersexual intimate partner intrasexual investment journal killing lethal levels male mating men’s moral offspring one’s outgroup oxytocin parental investment parents patterns peace physical political polygyny population predicted primates Primatology psychopathy Quinsey rape reﬂect relationship religion religious reproductive success Review risk Science sex differences sexual coercion sexual selection Shackelford siblicide sibling signiﬁcant social societies Sociobiology species speciﬁc Starratt strategies suicide terrorism terrorist theory Thornhill tion tive victims violence warfare women Wrangham York