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14*n $645, boy toc bana's, for the erection of a ciergy-ive They are ais embarrassed by another claim, for money due one of the habitants; this man dias, a fortnight later. A dispute arises between the meinbers of the council of Quebec and those of thas (111rt of justice, as to precedence in the church procession and in the reception of the blessed bread.

An experiment in regulating the liquor traffic is tried at Three Rivers. De la Poterie, a seignior these, desiring to repress the disorders consequent upon the ordinary sale of liquor to the Indians, O ns a tavern, where wine is sold to them at the rates of "' two pots for a winter beaver, and one for a simmer beaver," The savages do not amend their conduct, and complaints are made against the tavern. The scignior consults with D'Ailleboust, who decides that the tavern must be closed. “Nevertheless, it was continued."

XCVI. In this volume are presented Chaps. i.- xvi. of the Relatow of 1056 - 57: the remainder will appear in Vol. XLIV. It is prefaced by a short letter to the provincial from Le Jeune, procurator in France for the Canadian missions. He explains that misfortune has again befallen the Relation (this year, written by De Quen); the ship by which it was sent was “captured by the Spaniards, and all the letters on board were thrown into the Sea." Le Jeune therefore compiles a report of the mission work, from some letters recovered from this disaster, and some others which arrived in France too late for the Relation published last year.

The burden of this year's report is the work newly begun among the Iroquois tribes. Late in 1655, an embassy from the Senecas arrives at Quebec, desiring to form an alliance with the French. They are cordially received, and set out for their own country; but they are slain, not far above Montreal, evidently by some of the Mohawks, who are jealous of any friendship between the French and tribes other than their own. Another embassy comes in January, 1656, at the head of whom is a chief of high standing; “whose heart was entirely French, and who was already won over to the faith; " they ask for Christian teachers to live among them. Again the Mohawks thwart their desire, by killing this chief while he is on a hunting expedition.

Late in April, 1656, a large Mohawk band come to attack the Hurons. They are delayed at Three Rivers by parleys and presents, until word of the affair can be sent to Quebec. Father le Moyne, who is experienced in dealing with the Iroquois, immediately goes to meet the Mohawks, and after listening to his arguments, they agree to abandon their design against the Hurons, and their army ostensibly disperses. A little later, these treacherous savages,

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a: mesec ther pict:o massacre all the French and H75, after they shali bave lured these into the Iroquois suntry. The Mohawks, although pretending to be at peace with the French, may become hostile at any moment, owing to their wild jealousy of the Onondagas, and their desire to compel the latter to trade with them and the Dutch, instead of the French. These dangers, with the difficulties and expenses of the enterprise, make the Fathers hesitate; but not for long. Their decision to make the effort is based not only upon their desire to convert the heathen, but upon their perception that it is necessary to pacify the Iroquois at this critical time, lest these begin- as they have already threatened — a war of extermination against the French and their allies. Accordingly, Le Mercier takes with him on this errand Fathers Ménard, Dablon, and Frémin, and two brethren; they are accompanied by some forty Frenchmen. While traveling through the wilderness east of Lake Ontario, they encounter the Huron captive before mentioned, who had escaped from the tortures of the Mohawks; they aid him, and give him a canoe with which to reach Montreal. Their provisions being consumed, they suffer from hunger, but having sent ahead a courier to Onondaga, relief is despatched thence. Before this comes, however, all but five of their savage escort have deserted them. At last, thirty-four days after leaving Montreal, they reach (July 11) the place appointed for the mission, on the shore of Onondaga Lake. The writer mentions some notable characteristics of this locality,- the salt springs, the vast flocks of wild pigeons, and the numerous rattlesnakes. The Indians eat these snakes, and find them as well flavored as eels. The spot chosen by the Fathers is not infested by these reptiles, which haunt the vicinity of the salt springs.


At the spot chosen for their residence, they find awaiting them a great crowd of savages, who give them cordial welcome. After a little rest, the French

erect cabins for their dwellings, and a fortification for the soldiers. They visit the chief village of the tribe, where they are fattered, caressed, and feasted to the utmost. Envoys from the other Iroquois tribes are attending a great council at Onondaga; and the Fathers devote themselves to conciliating and winning these men.

In this council, Le Mercier is chosen arbiter of the difficulty between the Senecas and Mohawks. The Fathers adapt themselves to the customs of the tribes, and make both speeches and presents in all important matters; these, with Chaumonot's fluency in their language, delight the Iroquois. Having won their approval and good will, he preaches to them the gospel, with great eloquence and power. The Mohawks claim to be most friendly to the French; but the latter are warned by their hosts not to trust the Mohawks, who are deceitful and treacherous.

The Fathers build a chapel at Onondaga, and a residence on the shore of the lake, which latter they call Ste. Marie of Gannentaa. They preach, teach, and baptize, at every opportunity, while the Frenchmen who have come with them are erecting the buildings. All this is done in the heat of midsummer, with insufficient food and lodging, and many other privations. They suffer from the sudden change of climate, and the harassing attacks of mosquitoes, both day and night. The result is, that the entire party become ill, “ with no other succor than that of Heaven." This help is theirs, however; for God sends them abundance of game and fish, and the Indians bring them fresh vegetables. In consequence, they soon recover health. Soon afterward, Ménard and two Frenchmen are sent to the Cayugas,

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