Tell El-Hesi: The Muslim Cemetery in Fields V and VI/IX (Stratum II)

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Eisenbrauns, 1993 - Anthropometry - 214 pages
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The Tell el-Hesi site comprises a 25-acre walled city from the Early Bronze III period. It is located on the southeastern edge of the Mediterranean coastal plain, 26 km northeast of Gaza in Israel. Tell el-Hesi was the first Palestinian site at which the principles of ceramic chronology and of stratigraphic excavation were applied and at which the relationship between pottery and stratigraphy was shown to be significant. In 1890 W.M. Flinders Petrie excavated at Hesi and produced a general picture of its occupational history. In 1891-92, F.J. Bliss excavated stratigraphically through each successive level of the mound and identified eleven occupational levels which he grouped into eight strata or "cities". In 1970, The Joint Archaeological Expedition to Tell el-Hesi, sponsored by the American Schools of Oriental Research and a consortium of educational institutions, entered the site with the objectives of investigating in greater detail and with more refined methods the stratigraphic divisions identified by Petrie and Bliss. This book appears as the fifth volume in the Joint Expedition's series of final publications regarding their field experience and findings. The Joint Expedition had its first field season in June 1970 and returned to the site for further excavation in the summers of odd-numbered years. The first four seasons (1970-75) have been designated Phase One, and were largely limited to the later occupation levels on the summit and southern slope of the site's northeast hill or acropolis, although there were also probes and limited exploration of the larger Early Bronze (EB) city. The next four seasons (1977-93) were designated Phase Two, with work continuing in the Iron Age levels of the acropolis and also extending to the southern EB city wall and associated domestic structures. This volume is primarily devoted to Phase Two of the expedition and details the burials unearthed during this excavation period when a large number of graves overlying Early Bronze Age strata were found in Fields V and VI.
 

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Contents

Philosophy and Method
1
The Hesi Cemeteries
7
Grave Construction
8
Secondary Burials
10
Multiple Primary Burials
11
Jar Burials
12
Cemetery Installation
13
Grave Construction
15
Osteoarthritis
52
Miscellaneous Pathology of Bone
53
Parasitology
54
Malignant Tumors
55
Artifacts Associated With Burials
57
Pendants
61
Rings
62
Iron Finger Rings
63

Multiple Primary Burials
17
Jar Burial
18
Burial Patterns
19
Age and Sex
20
Body Position
21
Orientation
22
Direction of Gaze
23
Position of Arms and Legs
26
Legs
27
Arms and Legs
28
Field VIIX
29
Age and Sex
30
Body Position
31
Direction of Gaze
32
Position of Arms and Legs
33
Arms and Legs
34
Skeletal Analysis Osteometrics
37
Maximum Length of Long Bones and Determination of Stature
38
LongBone Length of Infants and Children and Determination of Age
40
Diameter of the Femoral Head and Sex Determination
43
Cranial Index
44
Conclusions
46
Skeletal Analysis Paleopathology
47
Congenital Defects
48
Porotic Hyperostosis
49
Infections Of Bone
50
Tuberculosis
51
Coins
64
Miscellaneous
65
Distribution of Artifacts
66
Field VIIX
67
Comparison of Fields
68
Cemetery and Community
71
The Community
74
SocioEconomic Features
76
Religious Concepts
77
Health and Disease
78
Death and Burial
79
Conclusion
80
POSTSCRIPT
81
Index of Burials
83
Typological Catalogue
89
Index of Artifacts
105
Burial Code Form and Guide
111
Osteologists FieldNote Form
115
Field I Burials
117
NonBedouin Burials
119
Modern Military Use
121
GLOSSARY
123
The Stratigraphy of the Site
125
Bibliography
127
PLATES
131
Copyright

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