Designerly Ways of Knowing

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 5, 2007 - Architecture - 141 pages

How do designers think?

The concept that designers have and use ‘designerly’ ways of knowing and thinking emerged in the late 1970s alongside new approaches in design education, and was first clearly articulated by Professor Nigel Cross, one of the most internationally respected design researchers.

"Designerly Ways of Knowing" is a revised and edited collection of key lectures and publications by Professor Nigel Cross on the nature of design activity and expertise, and the evidence for design cognition as a particular and essential aspect of human intelligence. It explores the following topics:

    • the nature and nurture of design ability
    • creative cognition in design
    • the natural intelligence of design
    • design discipline versus design science
    • expertise in design.

As a timeline of scholarship and research, and a resource for understanding how designers think and work, this book will interest researchers, teachers and students of industrial and product design, design practitioners and managers.

 

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User Review  - jonas.lowgren - LibraryThing

A collection of articles and talks by Nigel Cross, some of which previously published only in less accessible fora, spanning twenty years of studies of design practices and design thinking. The focus ... Read full review

Contents

Foreword BIRD
10
Preface
11
Acknowledgements
15
DESIGNERLY WAYS OF KNOWING
17
Design in General Education
19
Educational Criteria
20
Ways of Knowing in Design
22
Design Products
26
Appendix A
79
Appendix B
81
CREATIVE COGNITION IN DESIGN II CREATIVE STRATEGIES
85
Kenneth Grange
90
Gordon Murray
92
Comparing the Strategies
93
Design Expertise
97
UNDERSTANDING DESIGN COGNITION
99

Intrinsic Value of Design Education
27
The Discipline of Design
29
THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF DESIGN ABILITY
33
Studies of Designing
35
Design Ability is Possessed by Everyone
38
Design Ability Can Be Damaged or Lost
39
Design as a Form of Intelligence
41
Nurture
43
Design Education in the Open
45
The Development of Design Ability
46
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN DESIGN
49
What Expert Designers Say About Designing
51
The Role of Sketching in Design
54
Can a Machine Design?
58
Computation and Cognition
60
CREATIVE COGNITION IN DESIGN I THE CREATIVE LEAP
65
An Example of a Creative Leap
66
Identifying the Leap
70
Modelling the Leap
72
Combination
73
Mutation
74
Analogy
75
Emergence
76
Not Leaping but Bridging
78
Goal Analysis
100
Solution Focusing
101
Coevolution of Problem and Solution
102
Solution Generation
103
Fixation
104
Attachment to Concepts
105
Generation of Alternatives
106
Creativity
107
Sketching
108
Process Strategy
109
Opportunism
110
Modal Shifts
111
Novices and Experts
112
Issues in Design Cognition
113
Problem Formulation
114
Solution Generation
115
Process Strategy
116
DESIGN AS A DISCIPLINE
119
Scientific Design
121
Design Science
122
Science of Design
123
Design Research
124
References
128
Index
135

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About the author (2007)

Nigel Cross is Professor of Design Studies at the UK’s Open University and a leading international figure in the world of design research. With academic and practical backgrounds in architecture and industrial design, he has conducted research in computer-aided design, design methodology and design education since the nineteen-sixties. His current principal research interest is in design cognition, based on studies of expert and exceptional designers. He has been a member of the academic staff of the pioneering, multi-media Open University since 1970, where he has been responsible for, or instrumental in, a wide range of distance education courses in design and technology. For many years Professor Cross was Head of the Department of Design and Innovation at the Open University – a department with one of the strongest research records in Art and Design in the UK. Recent books by Professor Cross include the third edition of his successful textbook on Engineering Design Methods (Wiley, 2000), and he has been a co-editor of books on Research in Design Thinking, Analysing Design Activity and Expertise in Design. His total publications list includes more than 120 items, plus many Open University course texts, broadcasts, etc. Professor Cross is also Editor-in-Chief of the international journal of Design Studies.

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