Harbours and Docks: Text

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Page 23 - ... has a velocity varying according to other peculiarities, and independent of the depth. Some of them again are distinguished by always appearing alone as individual waves, and others as companion phenomena or gregarious, never appearing except in groups. In examining the paths of the water particles corresponding differences are observed. In some the water particles perform a motion of translation from one place to another, and effect a permanent and final change of place, while others merely...
Page 94 - ... of Ciotat with the object of protecting it from the swell. The breakwater consisted of a double row of long buoys chained together, and so arranged that the spaces between the buoys of the one row were covered by the buoys of the second row. The buoys, however, broke from their moorings during the storms, and moreover did not arrest the waves, and they were consequently removed. Other forms have been tried or proposed, such as rafts of timber; and also a series of beams floating vertically, by...
Page 94 - Various schemes have been suggested from time to time for arresting waves by means of floating breakwaters moored in position. It has been imagined that the undulation, being on the surface, might be stopped or reduced considerably by an obstacle at or near the surface; and thus the cost of building up a breakwater from the bottom could be saved. Though, in the case of large waves, the undulating motion...
Page 538 - The port is well provided with railway accommodation, as the Great Western, the London and North Western, and the Midland Railway Companies have each their sidings and coal tips on the quays.
Page 95 - ... successful in adequately reducing the waves ; for these kinds of constructions are liable, either to be shattered, or to afford little shelter, or, if strong enough to offer real resistance to the waves, to drag or break their moorings. Thus the Great Eastern, which may fairly be regarded as a huge floating breakwater, broke from her moorings when exposed to a heavy sea off Holyhead. The whole strain of stopping the waves is in fact thrown, in this case, upon the moorings ; and they would have...
Page 94 - ... the bottom of the sea would be very great. A floating breakwater was moored in front of the entrance to the port of Ciotat with the object of protecting it from the swell. The breakwater consisted of a double row of long buoys chained together, and so arranged that the spaces between the buoys of the one row were covered by the buoys of the second row. The buoys, however, broke from their moorings during storms, and moreover did not arrest the waves, and they were consequently removed.
Page 25 - Now in deep water, there were not only the oscillating surface waves to be encountered, but also those which he had termed waves of translation, forming what were called rollers at the Cape of Good Hope, and when on a smaller scale, known as ground swell. These were a much more troublesome class of waves ; it was mainly with them that the Engineer had to deal, in places open to the Atlantic ; and after a storm of some duration at sea, they became the deadliest enemies in the cases of deep water,...
Page 95 - ... imitation of weeds and reeds growing in the water. These attempts, however, have not been successful in adequately reducing the waves; for these kinds of constructions are liable either to be shattered or to afford little shelter, or, if strong enough to offer real resistance to the waves, to drag or break their moorings. Thus the Great Eastern, which may fairly be regarded us a huge floating breakwater, broke from her moorings when exposed to a heavy sea off Holyhead.
Page 23 - ... obeying different laws according as they belong to one or the other of these classes, the positive wave having in a given depth of water a constant and invariable velocity, while another class has a velocity varying according to other peculiarities, and independent of the depth. Some of them again are distinguished by always appearing alone as individual waves, and others as companion phenomena or gregarious, never appearing except in groups. In examining the paths of the water particles corresponding...
Page 512 - ... of the docks to their maintenance, to the payment of a fixed interest on the borrowed capital, and any surplus towards the reduction of the rates levied on vessels. This arrangement ought to conduce to low rates, as there are no shareholders whose interests have to be considered ; but, nevertheless, the rates have been complained of as unusually heavy. This result can only be due to the large amount of dredging required for maintaining the depth in the docks ; the number of entrances which have...