The Symmetry of Sailing: The Physics of Sailing for Yachtsmen
Here is a detailed study of the motive forces of a yacht written in clear and accessible terms. The author has the rare gift of enabling his readers to relate the nautical phenomena with which they are so familiar to a scientific explanation of how and why these occur. The first part covers downwind sailing, upwind sailing, sails, the hull, and the dynamic motion of a yacht. Part Two is devoted to more mathematical explanations of the same phenomena for those requiring a more scientific approach.
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Threedimensional lift effects
Sail twist and wind gradient
Full size measured sail data
Wind tunnel measurements
Some practicalities of sail design
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aerodynamic aerofoil air flow angle of attack angle of heel angle of incidence apparent wind apparent wind speed aspect ratio boat speed boundary layer buoyancy calculated centreboard circulation component course course sailed crest curve cylinder depends determined displacement downwind drag angle drag coefficient drag force driving force effect energy equal and opposite fluid flow gives graph greater heel angle heeling force horizontal hull drag hydrodynamic increase keel and rudder knots laminar flow leeway angle lift coefficient lift force luff mainsail mast measured motion moving normal pressure drag perpendicular points of sailing polar diagram produced proportional quantities reduced resistance Reynolds rotation rudder sailing to windward shown in fig shows side force spinnaker stability surface friction drag tack total force total sail force trailing edge true wind speed turbulence velocity vertical viscosity vortex drag waterline length wave drag wind angle wind direction wing yacht