Separations for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the 21st Century
This book constitutes the proceedings from a symposium titled Separations for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the 21st Century which was held in March 2004. This symposium focused on assessing the current state-of-the art in nuclear separations science and technology, and on identifying R&D directions required to enable nuclear separations to meet 21st Century demands for waste minimization, environment protection, safety, and security. Several recent developments have elevated the importance of this topic including: the potential effects of global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels; rising demand for the electric power that is needed to raise the global standard of living; geopolitical issues such as those related to nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism. Although expansion of fission-based nuclear power would help reduce the potential for global warming, future development of the nuclear fuel cycle must be weighed against the issues of proliferation and management of irradiated fuel. Separations will play a central role in addressing these issues. The subject matter of this book is organized into five topical areas. These are: 1) current trends and direction to the future, 2) aqueous processing, 3) emerging separations systems, 4) actinide/lanthanide separations, and 5) solution-solid interactions. This collection of papers provides a snapshot of the current state of nuclear separations chemistry and can be used to help guide future directions in this critical technological field.
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TwentyFirst Century Approaches to Actinide Partitioning 2
Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel with Supercritical
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actinides addition American Chemical Society amount anion aqueous BNFL calculated carbonate cation Chem chemical chemistry compared complex concentration constants contactor containing coordination crystallizer determined disposal dissolution dissolved distribution drops effect efficiency elements energy expected experiments extraction factor feed Figure fission products formation fuel cycle gluconate haze HNO3 hydrogen important increasing indicate initial interaction ionic liquids Laboratory lanthanides ligand limit mass materials measured metal nitrate nitric acid observed obtained operation organic phase oxide parameters partitioning peak performed peroxide plutonium potential precipitation present PUREX range ratio reaction reactor reagents recycle reduce removal reported repository reprocessing residue samples separation shown shows solid solubility solution solvent solvent extraction species spent fuel stripping strontium structure suggest surface Table temperature tests third phase uranium uranyl values waste