The Logic of Scientific DiscoveryDescribed by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as postwar philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day. 
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This is a classic in the histories of philosophy and science. The author translated from German to English. Cosmology is the study of humanity’s place in the world. Growth of knowledge is significant. Scientific knowledge is key indicator. Logic, or the method of progress, is the topic. Universal theory is the goal. Finding universal problems is the approach. It is interesting to see the science and common sense of that time questioned, e.g. to surmise that theories are not verifiable, and that probability is not falsifiable. The author makes observations about Bernoulli, Bohr, Kant, Hume, Wittgenstein, Einstein and Heisenberg. The second English edition was published in 2002. It had two parts, logic and experience, ten chapters, eightyfive sections, and nineteen appendices. There are eight main points about induction, psychologism, deductive testing, demarcation, experience, falsifiability, empirical basis, and objectivity versus conviction. The writing style is clear and uses elements of verbal rhetoric for pleasant effect rather than a dry classic style of proof, which is among the subjects of scepticism. A philosopher faces a “heap of ruins” and uses language to find genuine problems in an exercise of critical thinking. The social aspect is important. The title is similar to Kuhn 1962 and it has been observed that it anticipated the scientific framework or paradigm. There was a debate between them in 1965 and the theories have been compared. Modern fields which were outside of the scope at the time include at least brain science, computation, visualization and automation.
On of my aims this year was to read three books that had a great influence on our understanding of knowledge and scientific knowledge in particular. I was looking very forward to this highly acclaimed, large, work of Poppers’. Sadly I found it very difficult to read and personally I got very little by way of understanding from reading it. This really surprised me as I read two of Popper’s books last year and found them very rewarding. I would not discourage others from reading this – although personally I found it very stale
Contents
T A Survey of Some Fundamental Problems 1 The Problem of Induction 2 Elimination of Psychologism 3 Deductive Testing of Theories  3 
The Problem of Demarcation  4 
Experience as a Method  5 
Falsifiability as a Criterion of Demarcation  17 
The Problem of the Empirical Basis  21 
Scientific Objectivity and Subjective Conviction  22 
On the Problem of a Theory of Scientific Method  27 
1o The Naturalistic Approach to the Theory of Method  29 
Relative Frequency within a Finite Class  143 
Selection Independence Insensitiveness Irrelevance  145 
Finite Sequences Ordinal Selection and Neighbourhood Selection  147 
nFreedom in Finite Sequences  148 
Sequences of Segments The First Form of the Binomial Formula  152 
Infinite Sequences Hypothetical Estimates of Frequency  154 
An Examination of the Axiom of Randomness  159 
ChanceLike Sequences Objective Probability  163 
Methodological Rules as Conventions  32 
Some Structural Components of a Theory of Experience  35 
Theories  37 
Causality Explanation and the Deduction of Predictions  38 
Strict and Numerical Universality  40 
Universal Concepts and Individual Concepts  42 
Strictly Universal and Existential Statements  47 
Theoretical Systems  50 
Some Possibilities of Interpreting a System of Axioms  51 
Levels of Universality The Modus Tollens  54 
Falsifiability  57 
2O Methodological Rules  61 
Logical Investigation of Falsifiability  64 
Falsifiability and Falsification  66 
Occurrences and Events  68 
Falsifiability and Consistency  72 
The Problem of the Empirical Basis  74 
Concerning the SoCalled Protocol Sentences  76 
The Objectivity of the Empirical Basis  79 
Basic Statements  82 
The Relativity of Basic Statements Resolution of Friess Trilemma  86 
3o Theory and Experiment  88 
Degrees of Testability  95 
How are Classes of Potential Falsifiers to be Compared?  97 
Degrees of Falsifiability Compared by Means of the Subclass Relation  99 
The Structure of the Subclass Relation Logical Probability  100 
Empirical Content Entailment and Degrees of Falsifiability  103 
Levels of Universality and Degrees of Precision  105 
ºſſilſhillCRºſſ to Dimensions  110 
The Dimension of a Set of Curves  115 
Two Ways of Reducing the Number of Dimensions of a Set of Curves  116 
Simplicity  121 
Elimination of the Aesthetic and the Pragmatic Concepts of Simplicity 42 The Methodological Problem of Simplicity  122 
Simplicity and Degree of Falsifiability  126 
Geometrical Shape and Functional Form  128 
The Simplicity of Euclidean Geometry  129 
Probability  133 
The Problem of Interpreting Probability Statements  134 
Subjective and Objective Interpretations  135 
The Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance  138 
5o The Frequency Theory of von Mises  139 
Plan for a New Theory of Probability  141 
6o Bernoullis Problem  164 
The Law of Great Numbers Bernoullis Theorem  168 
Bernoullis Theorem and the Interpretation of Probability Statements  171 
of the Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance  176 
The Problem of Decidability  181 
The Logical Form of Probability Statements  183 
A Probabilistic System of Speculative Metaphysics  188 
Probability in Physics  190 
Law and Chance  198 
7o The Deducibility of Macro Laws from Micro Laws  200 
Formally Singular Probability Statements  202 
The Theory of Range  204 
Some Observations on Quantum Theory  209 
Heisenbergs Programme and the Uncertainty Relations 74 A Brief Outline of the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Theory  211 
A Statistical ReInterpretation of the Uncertainty Formulae  218 
An Attempt to Eliminate Metaphysical Elements by Inverting Heisenbergs Programme with Applications  224 
Decisive Experiments  232 
Indeterminist Metaphysics  243 
Corroboration or How a Theory Stands up to Tests  248 
Criticism of Probability Logic  252 
Inductive Logic and Probability Logic  261 
How a Hypothesis may Prove its Mettle  264 
Corroborability Testability and Logical Probability  268 
Remarks Concerning the Use of the Concepts True and Corroborated  273 
The Path of Science  276 
APPENDICES  281 
Definition of the Dimension of a Theory  283 
The General Calculus of Frequency in Finite Classes  286 
Formula  290 
Examination of an Objection The TwoSlit  297 
Remarks Concerning an Imaginary Experiment  305 
i Two Notes on Induction and Demarcation  312 
ii A Note on Probability 1938  319 
iii On the Heuristic Use of the Classical Definition  325 
vii Zero Probability and the FineStructure  374 
viii Content Simplicity and Dimension  392 
Statistical Tests  402 
x Universals Dispositions and Natural  440 
xi On the Use and Misuse of Imaginary  464 
xii The Experiment of Einstein Podolsky and Rosen  481 
489  