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American areas arrested attitudes auto theft behavior believe black market blacks burglary capital punishment causes of crime cent Chapter citizens commission committed COMSEC convicted costs courts crime rates criminal justice system criminologists death penalty decade decline delinquency deterrent drug effect efforts example executions experience fact focal concerns force heroin addiction heroin users important increase issue James Fitzjames Stephens James Q Kerner commission large numbers law enforcement least less major males Max Singer ment methadone middle-class murder neighborhood number of persons number of young offenses Ohlin party patrol patrolmen perhaps police officers political population poverty precinct prison probation problem programs proportion Ramsey Clark reason reduce rehabilitation result risk robbery sentence serious crime social society steal street subway Sutherland and Cressey theory tion tive treatment unemployment urban victims whites York York City Subway young persons youth