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8T TT 9T TT Albanian Appendix Baltoslavic Subfamily box diagram Breton Brythonic Celtic closed group cognate creole languages critical percentage Demotic Greek deviant percentages dialectological language dialects discrepancies Dutch-German Dyen East Iranian East Iranian Hesion English entry family tree model French Creole frfrX Frisian frT TT TT glottochronology Greek group or list Gujarati Hesion hypothesis immediate members Indic Subfamily Indoiranian Irish Katharevousa lexicostatistical classification lexicostatistical evidence lexicostatistical method lexicostatistical percentages linguistic Lusatian mating percentage Mesoeuropeic Hesion monograph multidimensional scaling Non-Slovenian open group overlap percentage points phonemes proto-language proxy member pseudomap Riksmal Romance Subfamily Section 2.1 Slavic language Slavic Subfamily Slovenian speech varieties Subfamily subgrouping method Takitaki TT 8T TT 9 TT 9T TT ST TT TT frT TT TT TT TT TX TT TZ TT XT TX TT TZ TT TZ.T Western Romance width word lists XfrX XT TT Z.T TT TT
Page 57 - ... start out with a situation in which Celtic, Italic, and Germanic are three neighboring dialect nuclei in PIE, with Celtic at the west and in contact with no other surviving dialect except Italic, while Italic shared contacts not only with Celtic but also with (at least) Germanic, which in turn exhibits contacts of its own with other dialects to the east (and south). Then when the Italicans pull up stakes and move south, the Celts and the Germans naturally move into the vacuum from both sides...
Page 61 - ... etc. The consequence was that an Englishman would have no great difficulty in understanding a viking, nay we have positive evidence that Norse people looked upon the English language as one with their...
Page 55 - Balto-Slavic' in the sense of 'Baltic and Slavic' and in the meaning of 'Proto-Indo-European of Northeastern Europe in its last phase.
Page 56 - ... but in no sense have we spoken, or should we speak, of an Italo-Celtic unity, either as a language, or as a culture.
Page 56 - IC superlative in -is-mo-), came to the conclusion that "while hardly enough to establish a real sub-group, [they] do seem to require a time when Italic and Celtic were closer to each other than either was to any neighbouring dialect of which significant material has survived.