Intellectual property and development: lessons from recent economic research
International policies towards protecting intellectual property rights have seen profound changes over the past two decades. Rules on how to protect patents, copyright, trademarks and other forms of intellectual property have become a standard component of international trade agreements. Most significantly, during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations (1986-94), members of what is today the World Trade Organization (WTO) concluded the Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sets out minimum standards of protection that most of the worlds economies have to respect. How will developing countries fare in this new international environment? This book brings together empirical research that assesses the effects of changing intellectual property regimes on various measures of economic and social performance ranging from international trade, foreign investment and competition to innovation and access to new technologies. The studies presented point to an important development dimension to the protection of intellectual property. But a one-size-fits-all approach to intellectual property is unlikely to work. There is need to adjust intellectual property norms to domestic needs, taking into account developing countries capacity to innovate, technological needs, and institutional capabilities. In addition, governments need to consider a range of complementary policies to maximize the benefits and reduce the costs of reformed intellectual property regulations. It will be of interest to students and scholars of international law, particularly in the area of intellectual property rights, international trade and public policy.
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Why We Study Intellectual Property Rights
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY TRADE FDI
The Role of Intellectual Property Rights
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activities affiliates applications assumed average brands capita chemical entities China Chinese ciprofloxacin coefficients competition consumers copying demand elasticity developing countries distribution distributors domestic drugs economic effect of IPR effects of stronger employment enforcement enterprises equation estimated Foreign Direct Investment global Herfindahl index higher imitation incentives income industry infringement innovation Intellectual Property Protection Intellectual Property Rights IPR protection IPR regime Lebanese Lebanon license fees manufacturing marginal cost Maskus million national exhaustion Number of firms Off-patent on-patent chemical entities parallel imports parallel trade Park and Ginarte partial equilibrium patent protection patent rights percent pharmaceutical products price discrimination price increases profits programs quinolones regional restrictions revenues sectors segment share significant simulation stronger IPRs stronger patents substitution TABLE tariff technology transfer therapeutic group tion TNCs trade costs trade flows trademark U.S. dollars value added variables welfare wholesale price World Bank