History of Europe: from the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 2 (Google eBook)

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1853 - Europe
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Contents

The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money
12
Important effect of the Romish faith
13
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
19
Huge gap in the revenue from tholoss of the South American colonies
20
how it was formed
21
Its extreme democratic tendency
22
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to tho generality of Spain
23
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
24
Influence of the Cortes on South America
25
The warlike preparations of France continue
26
Rio Janeiro
27
Speech of the king at the opening of the Chambers
28
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas ib 27 Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes
30
Decree of Valencia
31
Cortes
32
Madrid
33
king
34
Ferdinands despotic measures Reestablishment of the Inquisition
35
Discontent in various quarters
36
Revolt of Mina in Navarre
37
Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand
38
Further violent proceedings of the king and Porliers revolt
39
Invasion of France and retreat of the Spaniards Fresh tyrannical acts
40
the king
41
Change of ministers and policy at Madrid
42
Restoration of the Jesuits and other despotic measures
43
Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal
44
Creation of the kingdom of Brazil
45
Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona and death of General Lacy
46
Papal bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church
47
Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria ib 49 Treaty for the limitation of the slavetrade
48
its army and navy
49
Enormous abuses which prevail
50
Extreme penury of the finances of Spain Decree April 3 1818
51
Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima ib 54 Fresh revolt at Valencia which is suppressed
52
Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon
53
Insurrection at Cadiz
54
Two different people in Russia
55
The conspiracy is at first arrested by dAbisbal
56
Additional measures of severity on the part of the Government ib 61 Yellow fever at Cadiz
57
Sale of Florida to the Americans
58
Marriage of the king
59
Revolution attempted by Riego
60
Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents
61
Capture of the arsenal and expedition of Riego into the interior
62
Its defeat and failure
63
Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon ib 69 Insurrection at Corunna and in Navarre
64
the king accepts the constitution
65
His opinion as to the probable duration of the war
66
Reflections on this revolution
67
Rapid advances of the revolution
68
Reception of the revolution at Barcelona Valencia and Cadiz ib 74 Massacre at Cadiz
69
New ministry at Madrid
70
First measures of the new government
71
Congress of Laybach
72
Reflections on the division among the allied powers
73
Limits of the right of intervention
74
What share had the Holy Alliance in this?
75
Attitude taken by England on the occasion
76
Establishment of clubs in Madrid and other revolutionary measures
77
Legislative measures
78
its composition
79
Disorders in the provinces
80
Murder of one of the body guard and reward of the murderei
81
Opening of the Cortes
82
Report on the state of the army
83
its leaders
84
Suppression of the Jesuits and measures regarding entails
85
Financial measures
86
Tumult at Madrid and dismissal of Riego
87
Closing of the session and rupture with tho king
88
Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain
89
Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by tho king
90
Return of the king to Madrid
91
Victory of tho revolutionists
92
New society for execution of lynch law
93
Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal
94
Revolution at Oporto
95
Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon
96
Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon
97
Return of Marshal Beresford who is forced to go to England
98
Effect of the banishment of the British
99
Reaction and adoption of more moderato measures
100
Commencement of reforms in Italy
101
Breach of the kings promise of a constitution
102
Progressive but slight reforms already introduced
103
Agricultural committee reports and state of the consumption o of luxury
104
Origin of secret societies 105 Their origin and previous history
105
Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution
106
Defection of General Pepo and the garrison of Naples
107
The king yields and swears to the constitution
108
Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily
109
Revolution in Palermo
110
Frightful massacre in Palermo
111
First measures of the new junta
112
Failuro of tho negotiations with Naples
113
Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo
114
Renewal of hostilities
115
Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament
116
Insurrection of the galley slaves in Civita Vecchia
117
Commencement of tho revolution in Piedmont
118
Revolt in Alessandria and Turin
119
The king yields and accepts the constitution
120
Resignation of the king and proclamation of the Prince of regent and the Spanish constitution
121
Great increase of its military strength
122
General character of the revolutions of 1820
123
What should the military do in such circumstances?
124
Great wisdom of its external policy
125
Their unity of purpose
126
its population
127
Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population
129
Great room for future increase in its inhabitants ib 18 Unity of feeling in the whole empire
130
Reason of this unity Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings
131
Unity of interest in the empire
132
General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment
133
The clergy
134
the Tchinn
135
Great power given by the Tchinn
136
Caste of tho nobles
137
Of the bourgeois and trading classes
138
their number and condition
139
Privileges and advantages they enjoy
140
its advantages and evils
141
Way in which it is carried into effect 31 Contrast of English and Russian cultivators
143
Opinion of M Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement
144
Evils of the Russian serf system
145
Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate
146
Fear the universal principlo of government in Russia
147
General use of corporal chastisement
148
Character which these cimunstances have imprinted on the Russians
149
Causes which havo led to this character
150
Great effect of the distances in Russia
151
Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks
152
Strong imitative turn of the Russians
153
Military strength of Russia
154
The military colonies
155
Great inundation of St Petersburg
206
Noble charity of the emperor and nobles
207
Internal measures of 1824 and settlement of the boundaries of Russian America
208
her birth parentage marriage and character
209
Amours of the Czar
210
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
Reconciliation of the emperor and empress
212
Solemn service in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Kazan
213
His departure from the cathedral 21 4
215
His last illness
216
And death
217
And funeral
218
Death and burial of the empress
219
His character
220
His failings
221
State of the succession to the throne it 112 Constantino refuses the throne
222
How this came about
223
Constantines previous renunciation of his right of succession
224
Nicholas refuses the crown and proclaims Constantine
225
Contest of generosity between the two brothers and Nicholas mounts the throne
226
Account of the conspiracy against him
227
Details on the conspiracy
228
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
120121 Plans of the conspirators 230231
230
A revolt is decided on by the conspirators
231
Commencement of it
234
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Forces on both sides and irresolution of the chiefs of the revolt ib 127 Death of Milarodowitch
237
The Archbishop also fails in reducing the mutineers
238
The emperor gains the victory
239
Seizure of the leaders of the conspiracy and generous conduct of Nicholas to the privates
240
Appointment of a commission of inquiry
241
Its composition and report
242
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
And in that of the west
244
Arrest of the Mouraviems and outhreak of the conspiracy in the army of Poland
245
Its suppression
246
Their conduct on the eve of death
247
Their execution
248
Reflections on this event
249
Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of the convicts
250
Condition of the exiles in Siberia
251
Generous conduct of the emperor to the relatives of the convicts
252
Expiatory ceremony on the Place of the Senate
253
Great reforms in all departments introduced by the emperor
254
Great legal reforms of the emperor
255
Crime of the insurgents
257
Coronation of the emperor and empress at Moscow
258
Character of the Emperor Nicholas and parallel between him and Fetor the Great
259
He is essentially Russian
260
His personal appearance and failings
261
CHAPTER IX
263
Rapid flow of prosperity which succeeded them in the next year
264
Brilliant appearance of Paris
265
Exports imports and revenue of France during this period ib 5 Thorough establishment of representative institutions in Fiance
266
Which have no effect in conciliating the Liberal party
267
Popular acts of the new ministry i6 8 Return of Maret and many other of the proscribed to Franco
269
Increasing strength of the Liberals and resistance to the Government
270
Debate on the return of the proscribed persons
271
Speech of M de Serres on the subject
272
Immense sensation produced by this debate
273
Increasing violence and exasperation of the press
274
Budget of 1819
275
election of the Abba Grégoire
276
Biography of the Abba Gragoire
277
his biography
278
de Serres
279
His character ib 22 Conversation of Louis XV11I and the Count dArtoia on the election
281
Change in the ministry
282
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press
283
Kings speech at opening the session
284
Comparative strength of parties in the Chamber
285
His death
296
Chateaubriands words on the occasion
297
General indignation against M Decazes
298
The king resolves to support him
299
He at length agrees to his dismissal
300
Resignation of M Decazes and the Duke de Richelieu sent for
301
The kings inclination for Platonic attachments
302
Her first interview with Louis which proves successful ib 47 Character of M Decazes
304
Merits of his measures as a statesman tJ 49 Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
306
Funeral of the Duke de Berri and execution of Louvel
307
5152 Ministerial measures of the session Argument against the first 308309
308
Answer by the Government
309
5455 Censorship of the press Argument against it by the Opposition
311
5657 Answer by the Ministerialists 312313
312
Result of the debate
314
Reflections on this subject
315
Alarming state of the country and defensive measures of Governmeut
316
Denunciation of the secret government
317
Ministerial project of a new electoral law
318
6366 Argument against it by the Opposition 39321
321
CamilleJourdans amendment carried
325
The amendment of M Boin is carried by Government
326
Disturbances in Paris
328
The budget 830
330
Military conspiracy headed by Lafayette
331
Their designs and efforts to corrupt the troops
333
Which fails by accident
334
Lenity shown in the prosecutions t6 83 Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux
335
Universal transports in France
336
Congratulations from the European powers and promotions in Franco
338
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Viows of the Doctrinaires
340
Views of the Royalists ib 89 Disturbances in the provinces Internal measures of the Government
342
Changes in the household
343
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
347
Effect of the change in the Assembly
348
Accession of Villéle o to the ministry
349
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
350
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
351
Law for additional ecclesiastical endowments
352
Modifications in the cornlaws
353
Law regarding the censorship of the press
354
Speech of M Pasquier on the occasion
355
Increasing irritation of parties and difficulties of the ministry
356
Rupture with the Royalists and fall of the Richelieu ministry
358
The new ministry
359
Reflections on this event
360
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
361
Defects of the representative system in France
362
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPretrc i6 111 Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
363
Death of Napoleon
364
Reflections on his captivity
365
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
366
Lamartines account of his exile
368
Irritation between him and Sir Hudson Lowe
369
All parties were wrong regarding his treatment at St Helena
370
Change on Napoleon before his death
371
His funeral
373
Immense sensation it excited in Europe
374
He was the last of the men who rule their age
375
CHAPTER X
376
Difference in the causes which produced discontent in the two countries
377
Great effects of the change in the monetary laws
378
Mr Smiths views on this subject
379
Great effects of any variation in the value of the standard of value ib 6 Examples of this from former times
380
Discovery and wonderful effects of a paper currency
382
Advantages of a paper circulation duly limited
383
What is the standard of value
384
Vast effect of variations in the currency
385
When this effect takes place
386
Vast importance of an inconvertible currency as a regulator of prices
387
Concurring causes which brought about the bill of 1819
388
Danger of a currency entirely rested on a metallic basis
390
True system
391
Peculiar dangers with which the resumption of cash payments was attended
392
Strain on the money market from the immense loans on the Continent
393
Great prosperity of England in end of 1818 and spring of 1819 from extension of its currency
394
Great internal prosperity of the country
395
Disastrous contraction of the currency
398
And on prices of all commodities
399
Rapid increase of disaffection in tho country
401
Meeting at Petorloo
403
Great excitement and objects of the meeting
404
Its dispersion by the military ib 28 Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion
406
Result of Hunts trial
407
Reflections on the impolicy of allowing such meetings
408
And on the conduct of the magistrates
409
Seditious meetings in other quarters
411
Augmentation of the Chelsea pensioners
412
Meeting of Parliament and measures of Government
414
Lord Sidmouths Acts of Parliament
415
Impression Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh made on the Radicals
416
Death of the Duke of Kout
418
Death of George III
419
Birth of Queen Victoria
420
Alarming illness of George IV
421
Ominous questions regarding the omission of Queen Carolines name in the Liturgy
422
Remarkable speech of Mr Brougham
423
Cato Street conspiracy Thistlewoods previous life ib 45 Design of the conspirators
425
Conflict in the dark in the Cato Street loft
426
Execution of the conspirators
427
Disturbances in Scotland and north of England
429
Outhreak of the insurrection and its suppression ib 52 Death and character of Mr G rat tan 4 32
433
Increase of tho yeomanry force
434
The budget for 1820
435
Important subjects of debate in this session
437
Statisties on education in England and Wales by Mr Brougham ib 58 Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
439
Its difficulties and attempts at their solution ib 60 Probable mode of solving it
440
What is to bo done with the educated classes?
441
Cause of the wretchedness of Ireland
492
What would have relieved the couutry and its neglect
493
118 Ruinous effect of the contraction of the currency upon Ireland
494
Progress of the agrarian disturbances in Ireland
495
Lord Wellesloys able conduct and impartiality
496
Dreadful examples in the disturbed districts
497
Dreadful famine in the south and west of Ireland ib 123 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act and Insurrection Act
499
Divisions on the Catholic claims
500
Increasing strength of tho minority on parliamentary reform 601
502
Sir James Mackintoshs motion regarding tho criminal law
503
Great fall in the price of all sorts of produce
504
Measures for the relief of the agricultural classes
505
Detailed measures of Government for the relief of the agriculturists
506
Motion of Mr Western on tho currency
507
136142 Reply by Mr Attwood 610514
514
Repeated defeats of Ministers in tho House of Commons
515
Great reductions of taxation introduced by Ministers 616
517
Reduction of the 5 per cents
518
Equalisation of the Dead Weight and military and naval pensions
519
Details of the measure
521
Six acts relating to commerce and navigation
522
Visit of tho king to Edinburgh i4 153 Particulars of the royal visit
523
Death of Lord Londonderry
525
Its indomitable firmness
526
Political changes in progress from tho resumption of cash payments ib 159 Internal changes arising from the same causo
528
Lord Londonderry was tho last of the real rulers of England
529
Increased ascendant of the rulers of thought
530
Simultaneous outhreak of the revolutionary spirit in different countries ib 163 Different characters of the revolts in the different states
531
CHAPTER XI
533
PecuUar causes which augmented this divergence
534
Character of Mr Canning
537
His peculiar stylo of eloquence
538
Proceedings of the Cortes and progress of the civil war
591
his appearance and character and followers
593
Desperate assault of Cervera
594
Defeat of Misas U 59 Severe laws passed by the Cortes 696
596
Deplorable state of the Spanish finances
599
Commencement of the strife between the guard and the garrison ib 64 Departure of the royal guard from Madrid
600
Progress of the negotiations with the insurgents
601
Attack of the guards on Madrid and its defeat
602
Destruction of the royal guard
603
Defeat of the insurgents in Andalusia and Cadiz
604
Change of ministry and complete triumph of the revolutionists
605
The new ministry and provincial appointments
606
Murder of Geoiffeux ib 72 Second trial and execution of Elio
607
Civil war in the northern provinces
609
Vigorous measures of the revolutionary government
610
Capture of Castelfollit and savage proclamation of Mina
611
Continued disasters of the Royalists and flight of the regency from Urgel
612
CHAPTER XII
614
Effect of these events in France and Europe
615
Lamartines observations on the subject
616
Opposite views which prevailed in Great Britain
617
Repugnance to French intervention
618
Danger of a renewal of the family compact between France and Spain
619
Influence of the South American and Spanish bondholders
620
Immense extent of the Spanish and South American loans
621
Views of the Cabinet and Mr Canning on the subject
622
Congress of Verona agreed on by all the powers
623
Members of the Congress there
624
Description of Verona
625
Views of the different powers at the opening of the Congress
626
Brilliant assemblage of princesses and courtiers at Verona
627
Treaty for the evacuation of Piedmont and Naples i6 16 Resolution of the Congress regarding the slavetrade
628
Note of England regarding South American independence
629
Instructions of M do Villéle to M do Montmorency regarding Spain
630
Mr Cannings instructions to Duke of Wellington
631
Measures adopted by the majority of the Congress on the subject
632
Resumed negotiations at Cadiz and assault of Santa Petri
701
Deliverance of the king and dissolution of tho Cortes
702
Scene at his deliverance
703
First acts of the new Government to 92 Loud calls on Ferdinand for moderation and clemency
704
Sentence of Riego
705
Entry of the king and queen into Madrid
706
Distracted and miserable state of Spain
708
State of Portugal during this year Royalist insurrection
709
Royalist counterrevolution
710
Triumphant return of the Duke dAngoulême to Paris
711
Offer of assistance by Russia to Franco rejected
712
101102 Views of Mr Canning in recognising the republies of South America 713715
713
Mr Canning did not give independence to South America but only acknowledged it
716
Recognition of the South American republies by Mr Canning
717
Effects of this measure on British interests
718
de Chateaubriands designs in regard to the South American states
719
Speech of Mr Canning at Plymouth
720
The elections of 1824 and strength of tho Royalists
721
Great effect which this had on the future destinies of France
722
Meeting of the Chambers and measures announced in tho royal speech
723
considerations in favour of it ib 112 Argument on the other side
724
Law for the reduction of interest of the national debt
725
Which is passed by the Deputies but thrown out by the Peers
726
Reflections ou this decision Difference of tho English and French funds
727
Splendid position of M de Chateaubriand ib 117 His dismissal and that of Marshal Victor
728
Statisties of France in this year
729
Reign of Louis XVIII draws to a close ib 120 His declining days
730
His great powers of conversation
731
His religious impressions in his last days
732
His death ib 124 Character of Louis XVIII
733
His private qualities and weaknesses
734
Political inferences from the result of the Spanish revolution
735
Great merit of tho French expedition into Spain in 1823
736
It had nearly established the throne of the Restoration
737
The French invasion of Spain was justifiable
738
Was the English intervention in behalf of South America justifiable 1
739
Its ultimate disastrous effects to England
740

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 715 - It would be disingenuous, indeed, not to admit that the entry of the French army into Spain was, in a certain sense, a disparagement — an affront to the pride— a blow to the feelings of England...
Page 751 - PAUL. Analysis and Critical Interpretation of the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis. Preceded by a Hebrew Grammar, and Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch, and on the Structure of the Hebrew Language.
Page 465 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the Crown, which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne!
Page 715 - I have already said that, when the French army entered Spain we might, if we chose, have resisted or resented that measure by war. But were there no other means than war for restoring the balance of power? Is the balance of power a fixed and unalterable standard?
Page 748 - CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY, comprising, in Twenty Plates, Maps and Plans of all the important Countries and Localities referred to by Classical Authors, constructed from the best Materials, and embodying the Results of the most Recent Investigations.
Page 715 - Spain might be rendered harmless in rival hands, — harmless as regarded us, and valueless to the possessors ? might not compensation for disparagement be obtained, and the policy of our ancestors vindicated, by means better adapted to the present time ? If France occupied Spain, was it necessary, in order to avoid the consequences of that occupation, that we should blockade Cadiz? No: I looked another way; I sought materials of compensation in another hemisphere. Contemplating Spain such as our...
Page 465 - Save the country, my lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe ; save yourselves from this peril ; rescue that country of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree.
Page 751 - RUSSIAN SHORES OF THE BLACK SEA In the Autumn of 1852. With a Voyage down the Volga and a Tour through the Country of the Don Cossacks. By LAURENCE OLIPHANT, Esq.
Page 396 - The Prince Regent has the greatest pleasure in being able to inform you, that the trade, commerce, and manufactures of the country are in a most flourishing condition. " The favourable change which has so rapidly taken place in the internal circumstances of the United Kingdom, affords the strongest proof of the solidity of its resources. " To cultivate and improve the advantages of our present situation will be the object of your deliberations...
Page 635 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...

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