Vision in Vertebrates
When Dr. Katherine Tansley's "Vision in Vertebrates" appeared in 1965, it filled a real void that had hitherto existed. It did so by serving at once as a text-book: for an undergraduate course, a general introduction to the subject for post-graduate students embarking on research on some aspect of vision, and the interested non-specialists. Gordon Walls' "The Vertebrate Eye and It. s Adaptive Radiation" and A. Rochon-Duvigneaud's "Les Yeux et la Vision des Vertebres" have served as important sources of information on the subject and continue to do so even though it is 40 years since they appeared. However, they are essentially specialised reference works and are not easily accessible to boot. The genius of Katherine Tansley was to present in a succinct (132 pages) and lucid way a clear and an interesting survey of the matter. Everyone liked it, particularly the students because one could read it quickly and understand it. Thus, when it seemed that a new edition was desirable, especially in view of the enormous strides made and the vast literature that had accumulated in the past 20 years, one of us (MAA) asked Dr. Tansley if she would undertake the task. Since she is in retirement and her health not in a very satisfactory state both she and her son, John Lythgoe (himself a specialist of vision), asked us to take over the task.
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Physiology of the Retina
Visual Pigments e e s e e e
Adaptations to Light and Dimness
Adaptations to Various Modes of Life
Retinal Adaptations to Habitats
Acuity and Sensitivity
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absorbance absorption accommodation adaptation amacrine cells amphibians animals aquatic bipolar cells birds bleaching blue bright calcium central centre cGMP choroid ciliary colour vision contain cornea cortex dark-adapted decussation dioptres disc diurnal dorsal extract eye movements fishes fovea freshwater frog function ganglion cells green habitats horizontal cells illumination illusions increase inner nuclear layer iris lens light intensities light-adapted mammals maximum monochromats muscle neurones nictitating membrane nocturnal objects oil droplets opponent cells opsin optic nerve optic nerve fibres optic tectum outer segments pathway photomechanical photon photopigments photoreceptors Physiol pigment epithelium pineal plasma membrane plexiform porphyropsin posterior processes pupil receptors refractive region reptiles response retina rhodopsin rod retina rods and cones scotopic sodium species spectrally opponent spectrum squirrels stimulation sucrose surface synaptic tapetum tectum teleosts terresterial turbid waters types vertebrates vesicle visual acuity visual cells visual field visual pigment wavelengths yellow