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absolute temperature absolute zero adiabatic lines air thermometer atmosphere boiling point Boyle's law called calorimeter carbonic acid Carnot's cold body colder compression condensation conduction constant cooling cubic cylinder degree density depends determine diagram diffusion diminishes direction dynamical effect elasticity engine equal equilibrium expand experiments expressed Fahrenheit flow of heat fluid force freezing point gaseous gases given gravity greater Hence horizontal hot body hotter increase indicated indicator diagram isothermal lines Joule kind kinetic energy latent heat liquid means measured melting mercury method millimetre motion number of molecules observed pass perature piston portions pound of water pressure produce properties proportional quantity of heat radiation raise rays represents scale specific gravity specific heat square steam substance superficial tension suppose surface temperature rises theory thermal thermal equilibrium thermodynamics thermometer tube ture unit of mass unit of volume vapour velocity vessel viscosity weight
Page 308 - Now let us suppose that such a vessel is divided into two portions, A and B, by a division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower ones to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.
Page 170 - For compressible flow this becomes: where y is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume...
Page 153 - It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher temperature ; or heat cannot of itself (that is, without compensation) pass from a colder to a warmer body.
Page 32 - Temperature. — The temperature of a body is its thermal state considered with reference to its power of communicat.ing heat to other bodies.
Page 24 - ... warmed, though the lowest layer is always the hottest. As the temperature increases, the absorbed air which is generally found in ordinary water, is expelled and rises in small bubbles without noise. At last the water in contact with the heated metal becomes so hot that, in spite of the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water, the additional pressure due to the water in the vessel, and the cohesion of the water itself, some of the water at the bottom is transformed into steam,...
Page 308 - But if we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course...
Page 278 - Maxwell denned the coefficient of viscosity as follows: "The coefficient of viscosity of a substance is measured by the tangential force on unit area of either of two horizontal planes at unit distance apart, one of which is fixed while the other moves with unit velocity, the space between being filled with the viscous substance.
Page 122 - No separation into liquid and vapour can be detected, but at the same time very small variations of pressure or of temperature produce such great variations of density that flickering movements are observed in the tube ' resembling in an exaggerated form the appearances exhibited during the mixture of liquids of different densities, or when columns of heated air ascend through colder strata.
Page 276 - ... alteration is just going to take place is called the limit of perfect elasticity. If the stress, when it is maintained constant, causes a strain or displacement in the body which increases continually with the time, the substance is said to be viscous.