## Underwater acoustic systemsAddresses the theory and practice of sound transmission in the sea and in its underlying sediment layers and rock strata. Presents the sonar equations and considers modeling of sonar propagation. Also describes transducer design, transducer arrays and applications. |

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### Contents

The Sonar Equations | 16 |

Characteristics and Analysis of Sonar Waveforms | 32 |

Ray Trace Modelling of Sonar Propagation | 52 |

7 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

acoustic impedance acoustic intensity ambient noise amplifier amplitude analyser angle of incidence applications array attenuation backscatter bandwidth bottom calculation calibration cepstrum ceramic channel components computing correlation function decibels delay depth detonation direction echo sounder effect elements engineering equalisation equation example exhibit filter Fourier Transform horizontal hydrophone IEEE illustrated in figure increase Langevin layer loss marine measured method metre MRayl multipath normal modes parametric path phase piezo-electric plane polar response power spectrum pressure field pressure fluctuation problem projector propagation pulse range ratio Ray Tracing received signal referred reflection coefficient relatively resonance reverberation scattering sea-floor sea-surface sediment shown in figure sin0 sonar sound speed profile spatial spectral density surface synthetic aperture Synthetic Aperture Sonar target strength thermocline transducer transfer function transmission frequency transmit tuning typically underwater acoustics utilise variability velocity vertical voltage wave waveform wavefront wavelength