Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, Predators, Opportunists
Plant bugs—Miridae, the largest family of the Heteroptera, or true bugs—are globally important pests of crops such as alfalfa, apple, cocoa, cotton, sorghum, and tea. Some also are predators of crop pests and have been used successfully in biological control. Certain omnivorous plant bugs have been considered both harmful pests and beneficial natural enemies of pests on the same crop, depending on environmental conditions or the perspective of an observer.As high-yielding varieties that lack pest resistance are planted, mirids are likely to become even more important crop pests. They also threaten crops as insecticide resistance in the family increases, and as the spread of transgenic crops alters their populations. Predatory mirids are increasingly used as biocontrol agents, especially of greenhouse pests such as thrips and whiteflies. Mirids provide abundant opportunities for research on food webs, intraguild predation, and competition.Recent worldwide activity in mirid systematics and biology testifies to increasing interest in plant bugs. The first thorough review and synthesis of biological studies of mirids in more than 60 years, Biology of the Plant Bugs will serve as the basic reference for anyone studying these insects as pests, beneficial IPM predators, or as models for ecological research.
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PhytophagyFeeding on Plant Matter
ZoophagyFeeding on Animal Matter
Valid Names Authors Authorities and Subfamilies
Adelphocoris Agric alfalfa aphids apple arthropods associated Asteraceae behavior biological control Blepharidopterus Bryocorinae buds bug's Bull Campylomma capsid cause cells Chapter Closterotomus Cobben cocoa cocoa mirids cotton crops damage densities Deraeocoris Econ eggs Entomol Fabaceae feeders feeding habits females fleahopper flowers foliage fruit genus glands grasses growth Helopeltis Hemiptera hesperus Heteroptera homopterans Hori host plants infested inflorescences injury insecticides instars Knight Kullenberg 1944 larvae leaf leafhoppers lesions lividipennis Lopidea Lygocoris pabulinus lygus bugs Lygus hesperus Lygus lineolaris mainly males mirid feeding mirid species mites natural enemies nectar numbers nymphal nymphs observ occurs orchards Orthotylinae Orthotylus overwinter oviposition parasitism parasitoids pests phloem Phylinae Phytocoris phytophagous Plagiognathus planthopper Plate pods pollen polyphagous populations predacious predators predatory prey Proc Psallus Pseudatomoscelis Putshkov Reuter salivary Schuh seed seriata Southwood stems Stonedahl studies stylets symptoms tarnished plant bug thrips tion tissues tomato trees tropical verbasci Wheeler and Henry whitefly
Page 463 - Investigation of the nature and cause of the damage to plant tissue resulting from the feeding of capsid bugs.