The Worthies of Cumberland (Volume 3); The Howards (Introductory) Lord William Howard ("Belted Well" of Naworth), Charles, Eleventh Duke of
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated.1872 Excerpt: ... JOHN ROOKE, POLITICAL ECONOMIST AND GEOLOGIST. "He did look far Into the service of the time, and was Discipled of the bravest."--Shakespeare. JOHN ROOKE sprang from an ancient family of yeomen. No class stood higher in general estimation in his early days, and perhaps no class stands very much higher now in Cumberland. The term "yeoman" is here applied to a person who occupies and cultivates his own land, leasehold or freehold. In Cumberland, the yeomen are designated "states-men" by oldfashioned folk, as well as the agricultural community; that is, men having an estate of land. "An able and honest states-man" is one of the proudest of titles in Cumberland and Westmoreland. These "statesmen," or yeomen, are not so rich in the world's goods as the small landed gentry, the class immediately above them in society; but they are richer in proportion to their wants, and often richer in healthful contentment. They seldom pretend to anything more than what they really are in the eyes of the world. They live and labour as farmers, and appear as such in social life; but in possessing their own freeholds or lands, they can step beyond the tenant-farmers in various ways, and notably in the education of their children, and in placing them in commercial walks or professional positions. They constitute a landed middle class, and at one time were very numerous, and not less politically influential, in Cumberland. The incomes of the yeomen necessarily vary, and to a great extent, between the extreme points in the scale of a forty-shilling freehold, with dwelling attached, to 300 or 400 a year and upwards. An average would be difficult to estimate, but it may be taken roughly at 150 a year. The small holdings of " toft and croft" sprang from the feu...
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