The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology, Favid Masumoto, 2009: The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology

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Bukupedia , Jul 9, 2009 - Psychology - 606 pages



dictionary n. A book containing a selection of the

words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically,

giving information about their meanings,

pronunciations, etymologies, and the like.

psychology n. The study of the mind including

consciousness, perception, motivation, behavior,

the biology of the nervous system in its

relation to mind, scientifi c methods of studying

the mind, cognition, social interactions in relation

to mind, individual differences, and the

application of these approaches to practical

problems in organization and commerce and

especially to the alleviation of suffering.

It is perhaps most fi tting that a dictionary

of psychology begins with defi nitions of the

terms dictionary and psychology. This is the

defi nition of psychology presented in this

work, and it highlights several important

points concerning this dictionary. First,

psychology is broad. Its contents range from

the microlevel neural processes that form

the building blocks of thought, feeling, and

action to the macrolevel social and cultural

processes that bind us with our primate relatives

in our evolutionary history and defi ne

our collectives. For that reason, a dictionary

of psychology needs to include terms and concepts

related to neural structures, chemicals,

transmitters, genes, and anatomy, as much as

it needs to include social processes, network

analysis, and cultural norms and artifacts.

It also needs to include concepts related to

the array of abnormal behaviors and methods

related to their treatment.

Second, psychology is a science. Knowledge

in psychology is generated through empirical

research, a conglomeration of methods that

allow for the generation of theories of human

behavior and the testing of hypotheses

derived from those theories. This set of

methods includes both qualitative and

quantitative approaches, case studies as

well as carefully controlled experiments, and

rigorous statistical procedures and inferential

decision making. All knowledge in psychology

is based on such research. Thus, understanding

the meaning, boundaries, and limitations of

psychological knowledge requires students to

have a working knowledge of psychological

research methods, statistics, probability, and


Third, because the discipline of psychology

is broad, and because it is based on science,

it is a living discipline. That means that the

theories, concepts, and terminology used in

psychology are never static but often are in

fl ux, changing across time as theories, methodologies,

and knowledge change. Terms

that had a certain meaning in previous years,

such as borderline personality, homosexuality, and

self, have different meanings today and will

likely mean different things in the future.

Additionally, new terms and concepts are

continually being invented (e.g., psychoneuroimmunology),

in keeping with the contemporary

and evolving nature of psychology as

a science.

This dictionary captures these characteristics

of psychology as a living, scientifi c

discipline by focusing on several defi ning

characteristics. It is comprehensive, capturing

the major terms and concepts that frame the

discipline of psychology, from the level of

neurons to social structures and as a science.

It is interdisciplinary, highlighting psychological

concepts that cut behavior at its joints,

whether the joints refer to social cognitive

neuroscience (a term defi ned in this dictionary)

or the interactions among culture, personality,

and genes. And it is international and



cross-cultural, owing to the growth of psychology

around the world, the interaction between

American and international approaches and

perspectives, and the education of American

psychology by the study and practice of

psychology in other countries and cultures.

In this digital age, when information concerning

psychology and many other disciplines

is already readily available online and

in various reference texts, a relevant question

is, Why produce another? The answer is very

simple: because no other reference work on

the fi eld of psychology captures the characteristics

described previously. Many, for

example, do not do justice to psychology

as a science and therefore do not include references

to research methodologies and statistics.

This work does. Many reference works

present psychology from a more clinical orientation

and do not present psychology as

an interdisciplinary science. This work does.

And many other works present psychology

mainly from an American perspective and

do not present it as the global, international

discipline that it is. This work does.

These characteristics were accomplished

in several ways, the most important of which

were the recruitment and active participation

of a stellar Editorial Advisory Board (EAB).

Each of these individuals is an accomplished

scholar in his or her own right, and we were

very fortunate indeed to gain their participation

in the project. They guided me in every

single aspect of the production, and I was

fortunate to gain many insights their wisdom

and guidance provided.

Next, the entire work was reviewed not only

by the EAB but also by an equally stellar cast

of Managing Editors. Like the EAB, all of

these individuals are accomplished scholars

in their own right, and indeed are some of

the leading researchers in the world in their

respective areas of expertise. Equally important,

they are from many different countries,

cultures, and perspectives and have been able

to create the interdisciplinary, international,

and cross-cultural fl avor in the book, not only

in the selection of the keyword entries but

also in their writing.

Finally, we were very fortunate to have

so many authors contribute their time and

expertise to the project (see pages ix–xiii).

All of them are excellent researchers, teachers,

and scholars in psychology, and all

brought their expertise to bear in making

the discipline of psychology come to life in

their entries. They also made their entries

relevant to a global perspective, not just an

American one, and accessible to the educated

lay reader.

These three groups of individuals worked

seamlessly as a team to deliver the product you

see today. The work started with the creation

of the keyword list. For any reference work of

this type, the selection of the keyword entries

is crucial to the success of the fi nal product,

and I believe that the process by which

they were selected for inclusion in this work

was exemplary. First, the Editorial Advisory

Board and I reviewed all of the keyword

entries in the various psychology dictionaries

that currently exist, as well as a number of

the leading textbooks used in introductory

psychology. This accomplished two goals.

While of course it led to an identifi cation of

keywords that we could deem “standard” in

the fi eld of psychology – by being cross-listed

in multiple sources – it also allowed us to identify

what was not included elsewhere, or that

which was idiosyncratic to its source. It was at

this point that the EAB and I were able to add

keyword terms that we felt could accomplish

the goal of making this work comprehensive

and timely, terms that specifi cally addressed

our goal of being international, crosscultural,

and interdisciplinary.

In addition, many contemporary dictionaries

do not focus on the scientifi c aspects

of psychology and consequently do not

include terms concerning research methods

or statistics. In this dictionary, however,

we have made a point of including many

of the terms that students of psychological

science will encounter, especially concerning

the numerous types of reliability and

validity, various types of statistics and probability,

and various experimental designs.

Finally, after the EAB and I had completed

our initial selection of keywords, our distinguished

group of Managing Editors and

authors provided us with yet additional levels

of expertise, proposing new keywords within



their areas of interests. For example, these

are a sampling of the keywords included

in the Cambridge Dictionary that are not

included in many of the other dictionaries

on the market:

Behavioral endocrinology

Collective self

Confi gurative culture

Culture assimilator training

Dialectical reasoning

Differential item functioning

Distributive justice

Ecological fallacy

Ecological-level analysis

Effect size

Emotion theory

Eta squared

Face (concept of)

False uniqueness effect

Filial piety

Fourfold point correlation

Front horizontal foreshortening theory

Gene expression


Hierarchical linear modeling

Implicit communication

Indigenous healing

Individual-level analysis

Intercultural adaptation

Intercultural adjustment

Intercultural communication

Intercultural communication competence

Intercultural sensitivity

Item reliability

Lay theories of behavioral causality

Naikan therapy

National character

Need for cognition

Neural imaging



Norm group

Omega squared

Omnibus test

Outgroup homogeneity bias

Ranked distribution

Regression weight

Response sets

Retributive justice

Social axiom

Social network analysis

Standardization sample

Statistical artifact

Statistical inference

Tacit communication

Terror management theory

Tetrachoric correlation

Ultimatum game

A quick perusal of the list makes it clear

that all of these terms are widely used in contemporary

psychology today, owing to its

interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ties and

its existence as a scientifi c discipline. These

entries, along with the way they were written,

make this text unique and timely in the fi eld.


I give special thanks to the EAB for spearheading

this project from its inception, for

guiding me through the years that the project

was active, and for helping to generate keywords,

to recruit the stellar authors we have

on board, and to review all of the entries.

This work could not have been done without

your hard work and dedication, and the many

users of this work and I thank you.

I give thanks also to the Managing Editors,

who carefully reviewed the entries, made

incredibly helpful suggestions, added new

entries, and wrote entries themselves. Your

work went above and beyond, and the users

and I are grateful to you for your careful

review and guidance.

I give thanks to the amazing authors who

wrote entries for us – in most cases, many

entries. The project has gone through many

changes from its inception, and you stuck

with the project and me throughout, and I am

eternally grateful for your doing so.

I am indebted to many at Cambridge

University Press for making this happen.

Former editor Phil Laughlin fi rst approached

me about this dictionary in 2001 or so, and

we tinkered around with the idea for about

3 years before, in 2004, we fi nally agreed to

launch this project. When Phil left the Press,

the project and I were handed over to the able

hands of Eric Schwartz, with whom I worked



closely on bringing the project to fruition and

who helped me manage the enormous tasks

that composed the work and supported me in

every way possible. Throughout these years,

Frank Smith has been an incredible behindthe-

scenes supporter and advocate, and I am

grateful for the support he has given to the


Back at home, I have been supported by

many of my own staff who have helped in

some way with this project. I thank Stephanie

Hata, Shannon Pacaoa, Hyi-Sung Hwang,

and Mina Park for their clerical help in

managing the project. I am indebted to my

colleagues, students, and assistants at the

Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory

at San Francisco State University, many of

whom wrote entries, especially Jeff LeRoux. I

also thank two of my faculty colleagues in the

Department of Psychology at San Francisco

State University who helped out by writing

entries – David Gard and Virginia Saunders.

I thank my research collaborators and friends

for keeping me on my toes and keeping me

current with the fi eld – Paul Ekman, Mark

Frank, Dacher Keltner, Deborah Krupp,

Maureen O’Sullivan, Yohtaro Takano, Jessica

Tracy, Bob Willingham, Toshio Yamagishi,

and Susumu Yamaguchi. I thank my wife,

Mimi, for giving me the freedom to take on

crazy projects such as creating a dictionary of


It is virtually impossible to produce a work

such as this completely without errors, especially

of omissions of keywords that should

be included, or of mistakes in defi nitions.

I encourage all readers to let me know of

keywords that they feel should be included,

or of potential mistakes in the entries. Just as

the discipline of psychology itself is a living

entity, a dictionary of psychology should be a

living work, changing across time to describe

the ever-changing and dynamic nature of

the fi eld and its contents. Consequently, this

work should change across time as well, and

I embrace suggestions for such change to

improve it. Nevertheless, although it is quite

clear that this work is the culmination of

the efforts, hard work, and dedication of

a lot of people, the errors and omissions in

the work are solely mine.

David Matsumoto

San Francisco, California

July 2008


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Selected pages


Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2009)




General Editor

David Matsumoto

San Francisco State University


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Cambridge University Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

First published in print format

ISBN-13 978-0-521-85470-2

ISBN-13 978-0-521-67100-2

ISBN-13 978-0-511-63157-3

© Cambridge University Press 2009


Information on this title:

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the

provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part

may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy

of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,

and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,

accurate or appropriate.

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


eBook (Dawsonera)


This book is dedicated to all of the pioneers and scholars of psychology

who have contributed to the fi eld as it is today, and to those who will

mold it into what it will be tomorrow.






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