Surveying Instruments of Greece and Rome
Cambridge University Press, Apr 23, 2001 - History - 389 pages
The Greeks and Romans achieved extraordinary feats of surveying in building their aqueducts, tunnels and roads and in measuring the circumference of the earth and the heights of mountains. This book, which contains translations of all the ancient texts on surveying instruments, including major sources hitherto untapped, sets out to reconstruct the instruments and to explain how they were used. The subject has never been tackled before in this detail, and a level of technical sophistication emerges which must count as one of the greatest achievements of the ancient world.
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accuracy accurate Africanus al-Karaji Alexandria alidade alignment Almagest ancient Anonymus Arabic Archimedes astrolabe astronomical Aujac Babylonian back sight canal centre channel Chapter chorobates circle circumference Cleomedes Commentary cord cubits dactyls degree diagram diameter Dicaearchus dioptra direction disc distance earth engineering Eratosthenes error ﬁgure ﬁrst fore sight Geography geometry gnomon gradient Greek groma ground gruma height Hero Hill Hipparchus hodometer hole Islamic land later length libra mark measured method mizan mountain move the dioptra observed ofthe parallel Philo Philoponus plane Pliny plumb-line Pont du Gard Posidonius precise probably Ptolemy Ptolemy’s qanats right angles river road Roman aqueducts screw second century seems shafts side sighting tube Simplicius slit slope Source stades staff stars Strabo straight line sundial surveying instruments surveyor Theon Theon of Alexandria tilted tooth treatise triangle tunnel vertical mode Vitruvius wall wheel width zenith