Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics, Volume 30

Front Cover
In this important new work, Dr. Gill provides a unified, comprehensive approach to the study of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. He explains how atmospheric and oceanic circulations are ultimately driven by solar energy and covers the study of observed distributions of physical quantities, including temperature. Concise treatments of basic hydrostatics and thermodynamics are also provided.
This instructive work uses simple mathematical models to illustrate fundamental dynamical principles, enabling scholars from diverse disciplines to understand complex theory. Furthermore, the equations of state and dynamical equations are covered in detail, making this a self-contained text for those with advanced mathematical training. The extensive bibliography and index and the historical information included make this volume useful reading for researchers, as well as a valuable text for both undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysical fluid dynamics.
 

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Contents

How the OceanAtmosphere System Is Driven
1
12 The Amount of Energy Received by the Earth
2
13 Radiative Equilibrium Models
7
14 The Greenhouse Effect
8
15 Effects of Convection
10
16 Effects of Horizontal Gradients
13
17 Variability in Radiative Driving of the Earth
15
Transfer of Properties between Atmosphere and Ocean
19
812 The LiouvilleGreen or WKBJ Approximation
297
813 Wave Interactions
302
814 The Internal Wave Spectrum in the Ocean
305
815 Wave Transport and Effects on the Mean Flow
309
The Isallobaric Wind
311
Forced Motion
317
Ekman Transport
319
93 WindGenerated Inertia Oscillations in the Ocean Mixed Layer
322

22 Contrasts in Properties of Ocean and Atmosphere
20
23 Momentum Transfer between Air and Sea and the Atmospheres Angular Momentum Balance
22
24 Dependence of Exchange Rates on AirSea Velocity Temperature and Humidity Differences
26
25 The Hydrological Cycle
31
26 The Heat Balance of the Ocean
33
27 Surface Density Changes and the Thermohaline Circulation of the Ocean
36
Properties of a Fluid at Rest
39
32 Thermodynamic Variables
41
33 Values of Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ocean and Atmosphere
43
34 Phase Changes
44
35 Balance of Forces in a Fluid at Rest
45
36 Static Stability
50
37 Quantities Associated with Stability
51
38 Stability of a Saturated Atmosphere
55
39 Graphical Representation of Vertical Soundings
58
Equations Satisfied by a Moving Fluid
63
42 Mass Conservation Equation
64
43 Balances for a Scalar Quantity like Salinity
66
44 The Internal Energy or Heat Equation
70
45 The Equation of Motion
72
46 Mechanical Energy Equation
76
47 Total Energy Equation
79
48 Bernoullis Equation
82
49 Systematic Effects of Diffusion
83
410 Summary List of the Governing Equations
84
411 Boundary Conditions
85
412 A Coordinate System for Planetary Scale Motions
91
Adjustment under Gravity in a Nonrotating System
95
52 Perturbations from the Rest State for a Homogeneous Inviscid Fluid
99
53 Surface Gravity Waves
101
54 Dispersion
104
55 ShortWave and LongWave Approximations
106
56 ShallowWater Equations Derived Using the Hydrostatic Approximation
107
57 Energetics of ShallowWater Motion
111
58 Seiches and Tides in Channels and Gulfs
112
Adjustment under Gravity of a DensityStratified Fluid
117
62 The Case of Two Superposed Fluids of Different Density
119
63 The Baroclinic Mode and the Rigid Lid Approximation
127
64 Adjustments within a Continuously Stratified Incompressible Fluid
128
65 Internal Gravity Waves
131
66 Dispersion Effects
134
67 Energetics of Internal Waves
139
68 Internal Waves Generated at a Horizontal Boundary
142
69 Effects on BoundaryGenerated Waves of Variations of Buoyancy Frequency with Height
146
610 Free Waves in the Presence of Boundaries
153
Normal Modes
159
612 An Example of Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Stratified Fluid
162
613 Resolution into Normal Modes for the Ocean
167
614 Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Stratified Compressible Fluid
169
615 Examples of Adjustment in a Compressible Atmosphere
175
616 Weak Dispersion of a Pulse
177
617 Isobaric Coordinates
180
618 The Vertically Integrated Perturbation Energy Equation in Isobaric Coordinates
186
Effects of Rotation
189
72 The Rossby Adjustment Problem
191
73 The Transients
196
74 Applicability to the Rotating Earth
204
75 The Rossby Radius of Deformation
205
76 The Geostrophic Balance
208
The Thermal Wind
215
78 Available Potential Energy
219
79 Circulation and Vorticity
226
710 Conservation of Potential Vorticity for a Shallow Homogeneous Layer
231
711 Circulation in a Stratified Fluid and Ertels Potential Vorticity
237
712 Perturbation Forms of the Vorticity Equations in a Uniformly Rotating Fluid
241
713 Initialization of Fields for Numerical Prediction Schemes
243
Gravity Waves in a Rotating Fluid
247
Poincaré Waves
249
83 Dispersion Properties and Energetics of Poincaré Waves
254
84 Vertically Propagating Internal Waves in a Rotating Fluid
256
85 Polarization Relations
262
86 Energetics
266
87 Waves Generated at a Horizontal Boundary
268
88 Mountain Waves
274
89 Effects of Variation of Properties with Height
283
810 FiniteAmplitude Topographic Effects
292
811 Dissipative Effects in the Upper Atmosphere
294
94 Ekman Pumping
326
Velocity Structure of the Boundary Layer
328
96 The Laminar Ekman Layer
331
97 The Nocturnal Jet
332
98 TideProducing Forces
334
The Forced ShallowWater Equation
337
Use of Normal Modes
342
911 Response of the Ocean to a Moving Storm or Hurricane
346
912 SpinDown by Bottom Friction
353
913 Buoyancy Forcing
356
A Barotropic Example
360
915 A Forced Baroclinic Vortex
362
916 Equilibration through Dissipative Effects
367
Effects of Side Boundaries
371
102 Effects of Rotation on Seiches and Tides in Narrow Channels and Gulfs
373
103 Poincare Waves in a Uniform Channel of Arbitrary Width
376
104 Kelvin Waves
378
105 The Full Set of Modes for an Infinite Channel of Uniform Width
380
Seiches and Tides in a Gulf That Is Not Narrow
382
107 Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Channel
385
108 Tides
391
The Local Solution
394
Forced Kelvin Waves
398
1011 Coastal Upwelling
403
1012 Continental Shelf Waves
408
1013 Coastally Trapped Waves
415
1014 Eastern Boundary Currents
421
The Tropics
429
ShallowWater Equations on the Sphere
431
113 Potential Vorticity for a Shallow Homogeneous Layer
433
114 The Equatorial Beta Plane
434
115 The Equatorial Kelvin Wave
436
116 Other Equatorially Trapped Waves
438
Gravity Waves
440
118 Planetary Waves and Quasigeostrophic Motion
444
119 Baroclinic Motion near the Equator
449
1110 Vertically Propagating Equatorial Waves
450
1111 Adjustment under Gravity near the Equator
454
1112 Transient Forced Motion
458
The Steady Limit
465
1114 Steady Forced Motion
466
1115 The Tropical Circulation of the Atmosphere
472
1116 Tropical Ocean Currents
482
Midlatitudes
493
122 The Midlatitude Beta Plane
494
123 Planetary Waves
500
124 SpinUp of the Ocean by an Applied Wind Stress
507
125 Steady Ocean Circulation
512
126 Western Boundary Currents
516
127 Vertical Propagation of Planetary Waves in a Medium at Rest
523
128 Nonlinear Quasigeostrophic Flow in Three Dimensions
527
129 Small Disturbances on a Zonal Flow Varying with Latitude and Height
532
1210 Deductions about Vertical Motion from the Quasigeostrophic Equations
543
Instabilities Fronts and the General Circulation
549
132 Free Waves in the Presence of a Horizontal Temperature Gradient
550
The Eady Problem
556
The Charney Problem
560
135 Necessary Conditions for Instability
563
136 Barotropic Instability
565
137 Eddies in the Ocean
568
138 Fronts
571
139 The Life Cycle of a Baroclinic Disturbance
578
1310 General Circulation of the Atmosphere
582
Units and Their SI Equivalents
595
Useful Values
597
Properties of Seawater
599
A32 Other Quantities Related to Density
600
A33 Expansion Coefficients
601
A35 Potential Temperature
602
Properties of Moist Air
605
A42 Saturation Vapor Pressure
606
A44 Latent Heats
607
A List of Atlases and Data Sources
609
References
613
Index
645
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