Integrated Product Design and Manufacturing Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

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CRC Press, Sep 13, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 352 pages
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This book addresses the preparation and application of design layout analyses with concurrent engineering teams in six steps that capture design intent and add value to design process. It offers tools for eliminating costly trial-and-error approaches and deliver economically viable products. The authors discuss product design techniques that alleviate the constraints between product definition, manufacturing, and inspection, the prediction of variation effects on product function and manufacturing efficiency, functional inspection techniques that include CMM measurement, optical comparators, and surface plate and functional gaging, and more.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
What Are the Techniques?
7
22 PRODUCT DEFINITION
8
23 THE LANGUAGE OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERINGY145M
11
24 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
13
25 SUMMARY
22
REFERENCES
23
The Basis of the System
25
92 FUNCTIONAL GAGING PRINCIPLES
161
93 FEATURE RELATION GAGES
162
932 External Feature Patterns
169
94 DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR FEATURE LOCATION AND RELATION GAGING
172
942 Critical MMC Part Datum Features
176
943 Independent Hole Patterns
179
944 Two Critical Datum Features
180
945 Multiple Datum Features with Independent Hole Pattern
182

32 Y145M CONCEPTS
26
322 Tooling and Gage Datum Elements
33
323 Interrelated and Interchangeable Features
36
324 Boundary and Axial Concepts
37
325 Taylors Principle
40
326 Refinement of Controls
43
33 APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
44
331 Production Variation
45
333 Intexchangeability and Assembleability
46
335 Material Modifiers
47
336 Basic Intelchangeability Gages
51
34 SUMMARY
53
REFERENCES
54
Design Layout
55
43 THE SIXSTEP METHODOLOGY
58
431 Design Layout
59
432 Identification and Removal of Critical Characteristics
61
433 Mechanical Simulation
65
434 Consideration of DFA
66
435 Design of Experiments
67
436 Physical Prototyping
69
437 Metrology and Product Development
70
44 SUMMARY
72
A Producible Component
73
THE DATUM REFERENCE FRAME
75
THE FIXTURE LAYOUT
78
GAGING AND MEASUREMENT
83
FIXTURE CONTROLS
85
TOOLING PACKAGE
88
ENGINEERING CHANGES
90
58 SUMMARY
91
First Steps Toward Production
93
62 DESIGN
95
622 Setups
96
625 Datum Identification
97
63 SINGLEDATUM REFERENCE FRAME DIMENSIONING
99
64 TOLERANCING
100
641 Positional Tolerance Specification
101
65 PHANTOMGAGE DIMENSIONING
102
651 Design Layout
103
652 PartGage Design Parameters
104
653 Defining Functional Gages from the Design Layout
105
66 APPLICATIONS OF PHANTOM GAGING
107
67 CONCLUSIONS
108
Dimensional Measurements
109
72 MEASUREMENT THEORY
110
723 Error and Uncertainty
114
725 Precision Bias AccuracyAn Illustration
115
73 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
117
732 Random Uncertainties
120
733 Systematic Uncertainty
122
734 Uncertainty in Definition
123
74 MEASUREMENT PLANNING
127
741 Functional RepresentationDesign Intent
128
742 Derived Geometry
129
744 Methods and Procedures
131
75 SUMMARY
132
REFERENCES
133
Inspection and Verification
135
82 PROCESS PLANNING
136
822 Measurement Quality
140
823 Plan Content
141
83 INSPECTION PROCESS UNCERTAINTY
142
84 TOLERANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING
144
85 SETUP
147
852 Point Contact
148
86 TEMPERATURE CHANGES
150
87 EQUIPMENT INACCURACIES
151
88 OPERATORINDUCED UNCERTAINTY
153
882 Observation
154
810 RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS
155
8102 Recording Hole Axis Angularity
157
REFERENCES
158
Functional Gaging
159
946 Datum Features Related to Primary Datum Plane
184
947 ThreeHole Pattern and External Datum Feature
186
948 ThreeHole Pattern and Internal Datum Feature
187
949 Cylindrical Part with TwoPin Patterns
188
9410 Two Radial Patterns of Pins and Slots
190
95 REVIEW OF PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
191
Functional Gage Tolerancing
193
102 GAGING ELEMENT SIZE AND MATERIAL MODIFIERS
194
103 WORKPIECE EXAMPLE
195
104 ZERO POSITIONAL TOLERANCE ATLMC
197
1041 LMC Gage Pin at True Position
198
1043 MMC Gage Pin with Maximum Positional Error
199
105 RESULTS
200
106 ALTERNATE FORM OF ANALYSIS
202
107 FITS AND ALLOWANCES
204
1082 SingleSetup Gage Feature Manufacture
206
1083 Gage Assembly Operations
208
109 SUMMARY
209
REFERENCES
210
APPENDIX 10 A
211
Functional Inspection Techniques
219
112 FUNCTIONAL GAGING WITH SURFACE PLATES
220
1122 Gaging Form and Orientation Tolerances
224
113 FUNCTIONAL GAGING WITH COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES
226
1131 Functional CMM Programming
227
1132 Hypothetical Conversion
228
114 FUNCTIONAL GAGING WITH OPTICAL COMPARATORS
232
115 PAPER LAYOUT GAGING
236
1151 Application
237
1152 Parts That Can Be PaperGaged
239
1153 Paper Gaging Procedure
240
1154 Inspection Results Layout
241
1155 Tolerance Layout
243
1156 Combining Layouts
244
1157 Allowance Factors
245
1158 Analyzing Results
247
1159 Paper Gages Compared to Other Functional Gages
248
116 SUMMARY
249
Functional Workholding and Fixturing
251
122 FUNCTIONAL FIXTURES
253
124 FIXTURE DESIGN CONCEPTS
254
125 DESIGN DETAILS
260
1252 Number of DRFs
261
1253 Location of the Fixture
263
1254 Design of Datum Feature Simulators
264
126 APPLICATION ISSUES
267
127 A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
268
1271 Traditional Processing of Part
270
1272 SingleSetup Processing of Part
276
128 SUMMARY
279
REFERENCES
280
Does It All Work?
281
132 THE INITIAL SITUATION
282
133 COMPONENT DEFINITION
285
134 THE SIXSTEP PROCESS
286
135 THE RESULTS
294
Implementation and Process Improvement
297
142 WHY FOCUS ON THE DEFINITION?
298
1423 Education
299
1425 A Benchmark
300
143 STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
301
1432 Education in Documentation Principles
303
1433 Senior Managements Support
304
1434 Require a Structured Design
305
1437 Identification of an Advocate
306
1438 Management Support
307
1439 Controlled Implementation
308
14310 Upgrade MetrologyInspection Capabilities
309
14311 Review and Critique
310
14312 Expand Training
312
14313 Require Use
313
Index
317
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