Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Death and Exile is the history of the deportation and death of millions of Muslims in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from areas that have remained centers of conflict - the Balkans, the Middle East, and what was the Soviet Union - and shows how these ethnic and religious conflicts developed.
The history of the expansion of the Russian Empire and creation of new nations in the Balkans has traditionally been told from the standpoint of the Christian nations that were carved from the Ottoman Empire. Death and Exile tells the story from the position of the Turks and other Muslims who suffered death and exile as a result of imperialism, nationalism, and ethnic conflict.
Death and Exile radically changes our view of the history of the peoples of the Middle East and the Balkans. It presents a new framework for understanding conflicts that continue today.
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Eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus
The East 1878 to 1914
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Adrianople Allied April areas armed Armenian revolutionaries Atrocites atrocities attacked August Aydin Balkan Wars bands Belgeler Biliotti Bitlis Blunt to Layard British Consul Bulgarian Bulgarian Muslims burned Calthorpe Calvert to Layard Caucasian Caucasus Christians Cilicia Circassians civilians Commission Constantinople Cossacks Crimean Curzon deaths destroyed Documents east eastern Anatolia Edirne emigrants Erivan Erzincan Erzurum estimates ethnic European example February fled forced French Greece Greek army Greek soldiers guerrilla houses Istanbul Izmir July June Kars Kars Province kazas killed Kurdish Kurds lands large number March massacres Menemen migration military mortality murder Muslim population Muslim refugees Muslim villages Nationalist nians November number of Muslims officials Ottoman army Ottoman Empire Ottoman Europe Ottoman government Ottoman soldiers Philippopolis plundered provinces quoted in imžir rape refugees region reports retreat revolution Russo-Turkish Salonica September Serbian Smyrna statistics suffered Tatars Thrace Tiflis town Trabzon Trebizond Trotter Turkey Turkish Turkish refugees Turkish villages Turks Vilayeti western women