The Ionosphere: Communications, Surveillance, and Direction Finding
This introductory text describes the ionosphere and its effects on systems which use it, giving special emphasis to HF communications. Further sections cover topics such as the single station location of HF transmitters and over-the-horizon radar.
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THE QUIET SUN
IONOGRAMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION
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absorption Alice Springs altitude angle of arrival antenna atmosphere azimuth backscatter calculated CCIR Chapter circuit classical SSL method coordinate registration coronal holes corresponding Courtesy IPS Radio critical frequency curve Earth Earth's magnetic field effects electron density elevation angle equator equatorial error estimates F region F2 layer fading flare geomagnetic given ground range group path HF communications HF propagation histograms horizontal increases ionization iono ionogram ionosonde latitudes leading edge level of solar maximum median noise obliquity factor observed operating frequency parameters peak plasma frequency plot polarization predictions propagation modes quasi-parabolic quency Radio and Space radio wave raypath raytracing receiver reflection point RTCE shows simulation skip zone SKYLOC solar activity solar cycle solar wind Space Services spread station sunspot sunspot number tilt correction tion trace values variation vertical incidence virtual height wavelength zenith angle