Aeschylus’s Suppliant Women: The Tragedy of Immigration
This book offers a provocative interpretation of a relatively neglected tragedy, Aeschylus's Suppliant Women. Although the play's subject is a venerable myth, it frames the flight of the daughters of Danaus from Egypt to Greece in starkly contemporary terms, emphasizing the encounter between newcomers and natives. Some scholars read Suppliant Women as modeling successful social integration, but Geoffrey W. Bakewell argues that the play demonstrates, above all, the difficulties and dangers noncitizens brought to the polis. Bakewell's approach is rigorously historical, situating Suppliant Women in the context of the unprecedented immigration that Athens experienced in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. The flow of foreigners to Attika increased under the Pisistratids but became a flood following liberation, Cleisthenes, and the Persian Wars. As Athenians of the classical era became increasingly aware of their own collective identity, they sought to define themselves and exclude others. They created a formal legal status to designate the free noncitizens living among them, calling them metics and calling their status metoikia. When Aeschylus dramatized the mythical flight of the Danaids from Egypt in his play Suppliant Women, he did so in light of his own time and place. Throughout the play, directly and indirectly, he casts the newcomers as metics and their stay in Greece as metoikia. Bakewell maps the manifold anxieties that metics created in classical Athens, showing that although citizens benefited from the many immigrants in their midst, they also feared the effects of immigration in political, sexual, and economic realms. Bakewell finds metoikia was a deeply flawed solution to the problem of large-scale immigration. Aeschylus's Argives accepted the Danaids as metics only under duress and as a temporary response to a crisis. Like the historical Athenians, they opted for metoikia because they lacked better alternatives.
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According adjective Aegyptids Aegyptus Aeschylus Aeschylus’s Agamemnon altar Ancient Ancient Greece Antigone Aphrodite Apis archaic Argive Argos argued assembly Athe Athenian Athens AthPol Attic audience autochthony Bakewell beneﬁt Blok chorus citizens citizenship law city’s civic claim Classical Athens Cleisthenes context contrast Danaid Trilogy Danaids Danaus Danaus’s daughters deme democracy democratic demos depicts describe difﬁculties dramatic Egypt Egyptian herald eisodos emphasizes enktesis Eumenides Farenga father ﬁfth century ﬁgures ﬁnal ﬁrst ﬂight foreign Friis Garvie Greece Greek Tragedy Grethlein Hansen hoplites Hypermestra IG i3 immigration important instance Kurke land lines linked marriage means Medea metics metoikia Moreover myth newcomers non-citizens notes noun offers one’s Oresteia ournal peitho Pelasgians Pelasgus Pelasgus’s Pericles’s Persian phrase play play’s polis political Raaﬂaub refers reﬂects Sandin scholars Seven against Thebes sexual signiﬁcant sivou Solon Sommerstein Sommerstein 1977 speech status suggests Suppliant Women Taplin Themistocles threat verb Whitehead 1977 Whittle words Zeitlin Zeus