Structures in Science: Heuristic Patterns Based on Cognitive Structures An Advanced Textbook in Neo-Classical Philosophy of Science

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 2001 - Computers - 413 pages
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The philosophy of science has lost its self-confidence, witness the lack of advanced textbooks in contrast to the abundance of elementary textbooks. Structures in Science is an advanced textbook that explicates, updates, accommodates, and integrates the best insights of logical-empiricism and its main critics. This `neo-classical approach' aims at providing heuristic patterns for research. The book introduces four ideal types of research programs (descriptive, explanatory, design, and explicative) and reanimates the distinction between observational laws and proper theories. It explicates various patterns of explanation by subsumption and specification as well as structures in reductive and other types of interlevel research. Its analysis of theory evaluation leads to new characterizations of confirmation, empirical progress, and pseudoscience. Partial analogies between progress in nomological research (i.e. observational, referential, and theoretical truth approximation, presented in detail in From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism, 2000) and progress in explicative and design research emerge. Finally, special chapters are devoted to design research programs, computational philosophy of science, the structuralist approach to theories, and research ethics.
 

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Contents

RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND RESEARCH STRATEGIES
5
12 RESEARCH STRATEGIES Introduction
23
OBSERVATIONAL LAWS AND PROPER THEORIES
37
2 1 EXAMPLES AND PRIMA FACIE CHARACTERISTICS Introduction
40
22 THEORYRELATIVE EXPLICATIONS Introduction
44
23 THEORYLADENNESS OF OBSERVATION Introduction
52
24 THE STRUCTURE OF PROPER THEORIES AND THE MAIN EPISTEMOLOGICAL POSITIONS
56
THE IDEAL GAS LAW
64
82 EVALUATION AND FALSIFICATION IN THE LIGHT OF TRUTH APPROXIMATION
238
83 SCIENTIFIC AND PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC DOGMATISM Introduction
243
INTRODUCTION
253
PROGRESS IN NOMOLOGICAL EXPLICATIVE AND DESIGN RESEARCH
255
9 1 FORMAL PROGRESS IN NOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH
256
92 EMPIRICAL PROGRESS AND NOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS
260
93 PROGRESS IN DESIGN AND EXPLICATIVE RESEARCH
262
DESIGN RESEARCH PROGRAMS
265

THE EMPIRICAL BASIS Introduction
67
INTRODUCTION
73
EXPLANATION AND REDUCTION OF LAWS
75
31 EXAMPLES OF EXPLANATIONS OF OBSERVATIONAL LAWS
77
32 A DECOMPOSITION MODEL FOR THE EXPLANATION OF LAWS
86
33 REDUCTION OF LAWS BY THEORIES
89
EXPLANATION AND DESCRIPTION BY SPECIFICATION
97
4 1 INTENTIONAL EXPLANATION OF ACTIONS GOALS AND CHOICES
98
42 FUNCTIONAL EXPLANATION OF BIOLOGICAL TRAITS
113
43 SPECIFIC CAUSAL EXPLANATIONS
123
44 EXTRAPOLATIONS AND SPECULATIONS
126
INTRODUCTION
133
REDUCTION AND CORRELATION OF CONCEPTS
135
52 ANALYSIS OF REDUCTION AND CORRELATION OF CONCEPTS
138
53 THE RELATION BETWEEN CONCEPT AND LAW REDUCTION MULTIPLE CONCEPT REDUCTION AND NONREDUCTIONISTIC STRA...
153
LEVELS STYLES AND MINDBODY RESEARCH
159
62 EXPLICATION OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STYLES
167
63 BIOPHYSICAL MINDBODY INTERLEVEL RESEARCH Introduction
175
64 INTERLEVEL AND INTERSTYLE MINDBODY RESEARCH
183
65 LATERAL INTERFIELD RESEARCH
194
INTRODUCTION
199
TESTING AND FURTHER SEPARATE EVALUATION OF THEORIES
201
7 1 FALSIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION BY THE HDMETHOD
203
72 SEPARATE HDEVALUATION OF A THEORY Introduction
213
73 FALSIFYING GENERAL HYPOTHESES STATISTICAL TEST IMPLICATIONS AND COMPLICATING FACTORS
221
EMPIRICAL PROGRESS AND PSEUDOSCIENCE
229
101 THE LATTICE MODEL
266
102 THE NAIVE MODEL OF PROBLEM STATES AND TRANSITIONS
268
103 STRUCTURAL VERSUS FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
273
104 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND REALIZATIONS
276
105 POTENTIALLY RELEVANT PROPERTIES
280
106 RESEMBLANCE AND DIFFERENCES WITH TRUTH APPROXIMATION
281
INTRODUCTION
287
CHAPTER 11 COMPUTATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE1
289
111 IMPRESSIONS ABOUT PROGRAMS
290
MATRIX
304
THE STRUCTURALIST APROACH TO THEORIES1
317
121 WHY THE STRUCTURALIST APPROACH?
318
122 THE EPISTEMOLOGICALLY UNSTRATIFIED APPROACH TO THEORIES
320
123 THE STRATIFIED APPROACH TO THEORIES
324
124 REFINEMENTS
333
DEFAULTNORMS IN RESEARCH ETHICS
343
131 MERTON S NORMS CONCEIVED AS DEFAULTNORMS
344
132 DISINTERESTEDNESS AND ITS CHALLENGES
348
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
357
EXERCISES
361
NOTES
369
REFERENCES
379
INDEX OF NAMES
389
INDEX OF SUBJECTS
393
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About the author (2001)

Professor Theo Kuipers is the author of From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (Synthese Library 287, 2000). He is the leader of the Groningen Research Group `Cognitive Structures in Knowledge and Knowledge Development', which gained the highest possible scores in two successive assessments of Dutch philosophical research by international committees.

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