Decision and control: the meaning of operational research and management cybernetics
The nature of operational research. An initial posture. On fixing belief. Some dangerous precedents. The wedger bear. The new look. The activity of operational research. About models. Models in aspic. The formal languages. A walk in the ramified system; Apollo's gift. The relevance of cybernetics. About systems. Coping with complexity. Controlling operations. Self-organizing systems. Controlling enterprises. Outcomes. The outcome for industry. Information and automation. The outcome for government. The outcome for management science. On practicability.
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An Initial Posture
On Fixing Belief
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activity actually adaptation answer approach argument automation behaviour black box brain chapter complete concerned considered control system cost course cybernetic cybernetician decision decision theory decision-taking diagram discussed ecosystem enterprise entropy epigenetic landscape example existing experience fact feedback Figure firm forecast formal function given goal happens homeostasis homeostat homomorphic industry input interaction involved kind language linear programming logical machine managerial mapping mathematical matter means measure mechanism ment metalanguage method nature no-one operational research optimal organization outcome output particular pattern phase space possible practice precisely predictive probability problem production question reason requisite variety responsible scientific scientific model scientist self-organizing self-organizing system servomechanics solution specify statistical statistical populations stochastic network structure sub-system task techniques theory things thinking thought block tion variables whole world situation