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1844—altitudes of Polaris Advance altitudes of Polaris animals appearance Aquilae Arcturus barometer beautiful bottom buffalo camp CAMPMENT chronometer Clear and calm clouds Columbia covered creek crossed cumuli descended Determination of latitude Determination of longitude distance Dşg Double altitudes encamped feet Frémont grass hills horses Index error Indians journey July June Kansas Kansas river lake Laramie Laramie river left bank Little Blue river Lyrae Mean miles morning mouth Nearly clear night NOON HALT North fork Nutt OBSERVATIONS overcast party pass peaks pines plain plants Platte river prairie rain reached RESULT OF CAL RESULT OF CALCULATION ridge road rock Rocky mountains sandy side slight breeze SMOKY HILL RIVER snow species specimens spring stream summit sun's lower limb Sunrise Sunset Sweet Water river thermometer timber Torr trail travelled trees tributary True altitude valley willow Wind river mountains
Page 73 - It was a strange place, the icy rock and the highest peak of the Rocky mountains, for a lover of warm sunshine and flowers; and we pleased ourselves with the idea that he was the first of his species to cross the mountain barrier — a solitary pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization.
Page 164 - All the mountain sides here are covered with a valuable nutritious grass, called bunch grass, from the form in which it grows, which has a second growth in the fall. The beasts of the Indians were fat upon it: our own found it a good subsistence ; and its quantity will sustain any amount of cattle, and make this truly a bucolic region.
Page 158 - ... of the bellows to keep in a sufficient quantity of air. For a long time we scarcely seemed to approach our island, but gradually we worked across the rougher sea of the open channel, into the smoother water under the lee of the island, and began to discover that what we took for a long row of pelicans, ranged on the beach, were only low cliffs whitened with salt by the spray of the waves...
Page 238 - In the evening I received a message from Mr. Fitzpatrick, acquainting me with the utter failure of his attempt to get our mules and horses over the snow — the...
Page 232 - I reluctantly determined to leave it there for the time. It was of the kind invented by the French for the mountain part of their war in Algiers; and the distance it had come with us proved how well it was adapted to its purpose. We left it, to the great sorrow of the whole party, who were grieved to part with a companion which had made the whole distance from St. Louis, and commanded respect for us on some critical occasions, and which might be needed for the same purpose again.
Page 132 - Pacific waters, and crossed it by a road some miles further south than the one we had followed on our return in 1842. We crossed very near the Table mountain, at the southern extremity of the South Pass, which is near twenty miles in width, and already traversed by several different roads. Selecting, as well as I could, in the scarcely distinguishable ascent, what might be considered the dividing ridge in this remarkable depression in the mountain, I took a barometrical observation, which gave 7,490...
Page 271 - We were all too much affected by the sad feelings which the place inspired, to remain an unnecessary moment. The night we were obliged to pass there. Early in the morning we left it, having first written a brief account of what had happened, and put it in the cleft of a pole planted at the spring, that the approaching caravan might learn the fate of their friends. In commemoration of the event, we called the place Ague de Hernandez — Hernandez's spring. By observation, its latitude was 35= 51
Page 15 - Louis twenty-one men, principally Creole and Canadian voyageurs, who had become familiar with prairie life in the service of the fur companies in the Indian country. Mr. Charles Preuss, a native of Germany, was my assistant in the topographical part of the survey ; L. Maxwell, of Kaskaskia, had been engaged as hunter, and Christopher Carson (more familiarly known, for his exploits in the mountains, as Kit Carson) was our guide.
Page 263 - Pacific ocean ; already far south of the latitude of Monterey; and still forced on south by a desert on one hand, and a mountain range on the other; guided by a civilized Indian, attended by two wild ones from the Sierra; a Chinook from the Columbia; and our own mixture of American, French, German — all armed; four or five languages heard at once ; above a hundred horses and mules, half wild; American, Spanish, and Indian dresses and equipments intermingled — such was our composition.