Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking-Attacks and Countermeasures: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - Computers - 137 pages
Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures deals with information hiding. With the proliferation of multimedia on the Internet, information hiding addresses two areas of concern: privacy of information from surveillance (steganography) and protection of intellectual property (digital watermarking).
Steganography (literally, covered writing) explores methods to hide the existence of hidden messages. These methods include invisible ink, microdot, digital signature, covert channel, and spread spectrum communication. Digital watermarks represent a commercial application of steganography. Watermarks can be used to track the copyright and ownership of electronic media.
In this volume, the authors focus on techniques for hiding information in digital media. They analyze the hiding techniques to uncover their limitations. These limitations are employed to devise attacks against hidden information. The goal of these attacks is to expose the existence of a secret message or render a digital watermark unusable. In assessing these attacks, countermeasures are developed to assist in protecting digital watermarking systems. Understanding the limitations of the current methods will lead us to build more robust methods that can survive various manipulation and attacks.
The more information that is placed in the public's reach on the Internet, the more owners of such information need to protect themselves from theft and false representation. Systems to analyze techniques for uncovering hidden information and recover seemingly destroyed information will be useful to law enforcement authorities in computer forensics and digital traffic analysis.
Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures presents the authors' research contributions in three fundamental areas with respect to image-based steganography and watermarking: analysis of data hiding techniques, attacks against hidden information, and countermeasures to attacks against digital watermarks.
Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking – Attacks and Countermeasures is suitable for a secondary text in a graduate level course, and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.
 

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Contents

EXPLORING STEGANOGRAPHY
15
ATTACKS AGAINST HIDDEN DATA
47
Seeing data hidden in an image
55
Jpeg image left and Jsteg image right
56
Histograms of Jpeg Coefficients
57
Probability of Embedded Data
58
Difference between the graph in Figure 34 and the left graph in Figure 29
59
Impact of an attack using StirMark
69
Affine invariance of area ratios
91
Images used for recognition
92
Matching results for the image in Figure 50a
93
Affine invariants for Figure 50b
94
Additional images to illustrate incorrect matches
95
Correlation between Figure 55a and Figure 50a
96
Recognizing images
98
Refining image size and aspect
101

Illustration of an attack on a watermark using StirMark
70
Original image with an embedded watermark
72
COUNTERMEASURES TO ATTACKS
77
Example of strengthening a maskbased watermark
80
Candidate feature points based on edges
83
Examples of similarity functions for three local neighborhoods
85
Selected unique feature points for 12 14 and 18 resolutions
86
Identifying likely feature points
87
Selected feature points for full 12 and 14 resolution
88
Examples of Affine Transformations
89
Recovery of an image using Normal Displacement
102
Maskbased watermark recovery
104
Recovery of a commercial watermark
105
Further recovery of a commercial watermark
106
Application of normal displacement for recovery
107
Hiding Data in Network Traffic 111
110
References 123
122
Index
129
Copyright

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About the author (2012)

Dr. Sushil Jajodia is Professor and Chairman of the Dept. of Information and Software Engineering, and Director of the Center for Secure Information Systems at the George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA