Abiotic Stresses in Plants
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 30, 2003 - Nature - 233 pages
Much of Europe has been complaining recently of unseasonal weathe- disastrous floods in Eastern Europe, temperatures reaching over 40"C in Central Europe, no decent rain for months in parts of the Balkans, coupled with unusually long and severe frosts in winter. Indeed, wheat yields in Serbia for 2003 are expected to be reduced by over 30% because of the combination of a long frost during winter with insufficient protective snow cover, very low rainfall in the spring months and sudden high temperatures reaching over 30·C at the time of flowering. So, with this background, it is very timely that this volume on Abiotic Stresses in Plants has been put together. Each of the eight chapters focuses on a different aspect of abiotic stress, presenting reviews of recent advances in the subject. Rather than summarise the contents of each chapter, I'll focus on some of the advances in technologies presented here for elucidating the molecular, genetic and biochemical mechanisms that regulate plant responses to stresses and which also provide opportunities for improving plant performance under abiotic stresses. The last 20 years has seen a revolution in the availability of technologies for this, starting with the development of transformation technologies to study the role of an individual gene, then came molecular marker technologies to study the genetic control of stress responses, and in recent years the '-omics' (genomics, proteomics and metabolomics) have been developed to create an integrated picture of how the plant responds to a particular stress.
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abiotic stresses Acad accumulation activity adaptation algae anoxia aquaporins Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana barley biochemical Biol biomass carbon cellular chloroplast CO2 concentration CO2 enrichment CO2 springs cold acclimation cold induced complex crop decreased dehydration desaturase drought drought tolerance ecosystems effects of elevated elevated CO2 Environ environmental enzymes exposure freezing tolerance function gene expression genes encoding genetic genome grasslands growth heat tolerance high CO2 homeostasis HSPs identified increase involved kinase leaf lipid maize mapping population mechanisms membrane metabolic molecular mutants Natl nutrient organic acids osmolytes osmotic stress overexpression pathway PC synthase photosynthesis physiological Plant Cell Plant Mol Plant Physiol Pollution Proc production proline proteins QTLs Raschi regulation reported respiration rice role Rubisco salinity salt tolerance seedlings Shinozaki signal signal transduction smHSPs soil stomatal stress tolerance studies sucrose sucrose synthase temperature thaliana thermotolerance toxic transcription factors transduction transgenic plants yield