The Development of Cognitive Anthropology

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Cambridge University Press, Jan 27, 1995 - Psychology - 272 pages
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Roy D'Andrade has written a lucid historical account of the growth and development of the field of cognitive anthropology. The origins of cognitive anthropology can be traced back to the late 1950s when anthropology was grappling with the problem of understanding native systems of categorization. This book starts with an evaluation of these formative years, portraying the way in which research evolved across more than thirty years to the present. It traces the way in which the early notions about semantics and taxonomies evolved into more sophisticated theories about prototypes, schemas, and connectionist networks, seen as the cognitive mechanisms underlying the organization of folk models and reasoning in ordinary life. This is followed by a review of the most recent research on the social distribution of cultural knowledge and the relation of cultural models to emotion, motivation, and action. The final section summarizes the general theoretical perspective of cognitive anthropology, which treats culture as particulate, socially distributed, variably internalized and embodied in physical structures - a view which opposes structuralist, interpretive, and post-modern conceptions of culture.
 

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Contents

Background
1
A new agenda in anthropology and the great paradigm shift
8
Towards an analysis of meaning
16
Structure
17
The feature analysis of kin terms
19
A feature analysis of English kin terms
28
The classic feature model
31
Polysemy
36
Cultural schemas
130
Image schemas
132
Schemas as processors
136
Modifications of schema theory and limitations of connectionist models
141
The implications of schemaconnectionist theory for the study of culture
143
Models and theories
150
Models
151
The Caroline Islands navigation model
152

Conjunctivity or nondisjunctiveness
38
Shortterm memory
42
Chunking
44
Analogy
45
Similarity judgments
48
The feature composition of evaluative judgments
54
Summary
56
Extension of the feature model
58
Semantic networks
62
Finding salient features through similarity judgments
64
Psychological reality again
66
Item by feature matrices
70
Rating correlations based on feature overlap
77
Memory based rating
83
Applied research
88
In retrospect
90
Folk taxonomies
92
The generality of the model of taxonomic ranks
100
Some critiques of the taxonomic rank model
101
Extended and focal ranges
104
Focal and extended ranges of color terms
106
The Roschian synthesis
115
The growth of schema theory
122
The germ schema
126
The model of the mind
158
The American model of marriage
169
Cultural theories
172
The cultural theory of conventionality
174
The theory of essences
176
An ontology of cultural forms
179
Cultural representations and psychological processes
182
Memory
184
Reasoning
193
Logic and the psychology of reasoning
199
Distributed cognition artifacts and representational structure
207
Consensus and cognition
212
Summary
216
Cognitive processes and personality
218
Internalization
227
Motivation
229
Coda
241
Summing up
244
The historical context
248
Final comment
251
References
253
Name index
268
General index
271
Copyright

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About the author (1995)

Roy D'Andrade is Professor of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, the author of "The Development of Cognitive Anthropology," and the co-editor of "Human Motives and Cultural Models,"

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