History of Semiconductor Engineering
performing ?rms were curtailed following the stock market decline and the subsequent economic slowdown of 2001 and 2002. The Federal Government was once the main source of the nation’s R&D funds, funding as much as 66. 7 percent of all U. S. R&D in 1964. The Federal share ?rst fell below 50 percent in 1979, and after 1987 it fell steadily, dr- ping from 46. 3 percent in that year to 25. 1 percent in 2000 (the lowest it has ever been since 1953). Adjusting for in?ation, Federal support decreased 18 percent from 1987 to 2000, although in nominal terms, Federal support grew from $58. 5 billion to $66. 4 billion during that period. Growth in industrial funding generally outpaced growth in Federal support, leading to the decline in Federal support as a proportion of the total. Fig. 2. Doctorates awarded in Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics: 1995–2002 [Source: National Science Foundation NSF 04–303 (October 2003)] Figure 1 explains the most signi?cant change in the industry which occurred in the early sixties. The industry, with pressure from Wall Street, could not ?nance long-range and risky basic research. The objective of basic research is to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without speci?c applications in mind. Basic research advances scienti?c knowledge but does not have speci?c immediate commercial objectives. Basic research can fail and often will not bring results in a short period of time.
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No book about semiconductor engineering could fit in this number of pages and even cover the important issues. But on balance, Bo Lojek kept so many images of people, equipment ads, and many old machines that I read it first just looking at the pictures, then dove into the great chapter on Bob Widler. Widlar created the LM101 and beyond at the birth of National Semi in Bay Area with his process partner Dave Talbert. Bub cashed in his National stock options, moved to Mexico beaches and consulted for National, famously showing up in new product ads sitting on beach with drink raised high saying "I'll drink to that." In my opinion, Widlar created the linear IC industry and National was finally merged in with Texas Instruments who continues that focus on analog for precision, and digital for low cost.
I found many friends in the index, and the data on them was incomplete of course, but accurate.
Shockley is idolized a bit much, and Noyce and Moore not. So reader is warned that as an engineer, like myself, Lojek has strong feelings about management people and how they treated their best engineers, many of whom left Fairchild in droves as the Bay Area became the "new normal" for corporate work instability. Prior to this explosion of job changes, people tended to work for same company for decades if not life. I remember that early 60's time when each time I changed jobs, I got a double-digit percentage raise, not common any longer, but very common in our industry in early years.
Its an industry of immigrants and that shows up in the book many times, including Bo Lojek himself and his unedited English phrases. But I re-read parts of this book often. Eastern Europeans worked the early steel and mining industry post WWII back East, and Asian have always come to West coast to work. Check the list of names in the index and you will see a map of the world. Its amazing how quickly the innovations spread, by patent license, or by word of mouth on process tricks at the Wagon Wheel bar while interviewing for jobs every Friday night.
Wild times, with new fabs popping up until the Japanese started outproducing us on yield and quality in 70's, That wakeup call led to Sematech's attempt by government to save some of the equipment industry in the US. And some are still in US. But now most of California is fabless. Design only, or design and test shops sent every new product to Asian foundries to be manufactured after Morris Chang of TI invented the foundry industry with TSMC in his homeland, Taiwan (formerly Formosa for old timers). You can read lots of our industry history in Wikipedia. Hardcopy books are being augmented by blogs and Wiki which can be edited for errors over time by many volunteers until the dust settles. But for now, enjoy this great book any way you can get it.
Excellent research! Great book.
Grown Junction and Diffused Transistors
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories
Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Subsidiary of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company
Driving the Company Out of Business
Integrated Circuits outside Fairchild Semiconductor
Linear Integrated Circuits PreWidlar Era Prior to 1963