Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia

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Cambridge University Press, 2004 - History - 278 pages
2 Reviews
Since 1998, which marked the end of the thirty-three-year New Order regime under President Suharto, there has been a dramatic increase in ethnic conflict and violence in Indonesia. In his innovative and persuasive account, Jacques Bertrand argues that conflicts in Maluku, Kalimantan, Aceh, Papua, and East Timur were a result of the New Order's narrow and constraining reinterpretation of Indonesia's 'national model'. The author shows how, at the end of the 1990s, this national model came under intense pressure at the prospect of institutional transformation, a reconfiguration of ethnic relations, and an increase in the role of Islam in Indonesia's political institutions. It was within the context of these challenges, that the very definition of the Indonesian nation and what it meant to be Indonesian came under scrutiny. The book sheds light on the roots of religious and ethnic conflict at a turning point in Indonesia's history.
 

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The author, now a political science associate professor at the University of Toronto, did his graduate study on small acts of resistance in Java and Ambon. He returned in 1996 to document the relative ... Read full review

Contents

Introduction
1
A historical institutionalist explanation
3
Critical junctures nationalism and ethnic violence
9
Explaining ethnic violence
10
Nationalism and ethnic conflict
15
Critical junctures institutions and national models
20
The national model and its institutional history
28
The rise of Indonesian nationalism
30
Islamization and the struggle for government positions
118
The impact of migration
121
The eruption of violence
123
The Wahid presidency and the spread of violence
129
Late integration into the nation East Timor and Irian Jaya Papua
135
The integration that never was
136
Irian Jaya Papua
144
Acehs ethnonationalist conflict
161

The crisis of the late 1950s and the establishment of the New Order
34
The end of the New Order and the era of political reform
40
Exclusion marginality and the nation
45
Marginality and conflict in Kalimantan
47
Chinese Indonesians as nonpribumi
59
Islam and nation The MuslimChristian dimension
72
The New Orders management of religion
74
Representation in the New Orders institutions
80
The Islamization of the New Order
83
The escalation of religious conflict
90
The riots
94
Suhartos fall and the intensification of religious conflict
102
Compromise among Muslims and the presidency of Abdurrahman Wahid
105
Sources of religious conflict
109
Conflict in Maluku
114
Ambon and Maluku in the Indonesian Republic
115
The Indonesian revolution and Acehs first rebellion
163
The New Order and the emergence of the Free Aceh Movement
168
Democratization and mobilization in favor of independence
173
Coercion wideranging autonomy and democracy
182
Autonomy as a solution to ethnic conflict
184
Autonomy and its effects on ethnic conflict
186
Unitary state autonomy and federalism
188
Centralization and authoritarian control under the New Order
191
A new direction
200
Autonomy and the prevention of ethnic violence in Indonesia
210
Unity in diversity
214
Notes
224
Glossary
250
Bibliography
258
Index
270
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About the author (2004)

Jacques Bertrand is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto.