## The Facts on File Dictionary of MathematicsEncompassing every mathematical term and concept of interest, this book conveys information to students and general readers in a proven, accessible format. This fourth edition contains approximately 320 new entries, dozens of new photographs, new pronunciation symbols, a list of websites, and a bibliography. Current entries and back matter have been revised as needed. Relating significant information in a non-specialist manner, this dictionary is an invaluable resource. |

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### Contents

A entries | 1 |

B entries | 17 |

C entries | 24 |

D entries | 57 |

E entries | 74 |

F entries | 84 |

G entries | 93 |

H entries | 99 |

T entries | 217 |

U entries | 230 |

V entries | 233 |

W entries | 238 |

Y entries | 241 |

Z entries | 242 |

Appendix I | 245 |

Appendix II | 248 |

I entries | 106 |

J entries | 118 |

K entries | 119 |

L entries | 121 |

M entries | 133 |

N entries | 144 |

O entries | 150 |

P entries | 156 |

Q entries | 178 |

R entries | 182 |

S entries | 194 |

Appendix III | 249 |

Appendix IV | 250 |

Appendix V | 251 |

Appendix VI | 252 |

Appendix VII | 253 |

Appendix VIII | 254 |

Appendix IX | 257 |

Appendix X | 260 |

Appendix XI | 261 |

262 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

algebraic angular axes axis calculated Cartesian coordinate system Cartesian coordinates center of mass circle complex number conic constant curve defined denoted derivative differential equation digits distance dy/dx elements ellipse energy equal example finite force formula fraction frequency func function f(x geometry given graph hyperbola hyperbolic infinite integral inverse inverse hyperbolic functions joules Julia set kilograms length linear logarithm logic mass mathematical mathematician matrix meter motion multiplication object operation parabola parallel polar coordinates quadric quantity radians radius ratio rational numbers real numbers result right angles roots rotation scalar sequence sides simple harmonic motion solid solution space sphere spherical square straight line surface Symbol symmetry tangent theorem theory tion trapezium rule triangle truth table unit variable vector vector calculus velocity vertices wave written x-axis zero